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3 When the missionaries came to Africa they had the Bible and we had the land. They said, Let us pray. We closed our eyes. When we opened them we had the Bible and they had the land. -Bishop Desmond Tutu 4 kush magazine vol vol.6 magazine kush 5

4 The Kush and afrikan history week festival family would like to invite you into the warm embrace of our culture-smacked, thought-provoking, hilarious, varied, dope, afrocentric take on the globalisation concept. Sure, you ve heard that word before, the definitions, the theories, the arguments and the abstract consequential thoughts and assumptions about what it meeeaaanns from everyone and everywhere; your TV, your colleagues, your friends, even your 5 year old niece knows what s going down in this day and age. The word globalisation has been thrown around since the early 1990 and yet, we have throughout these pages, endeavoured to unpack the concept from an african perspective and hopefully, manage to add nuances and different angles to this very over-debated term. And we have done so from a political, a cultural, a creative, a personal and even a child s perspective. Because for all its complex, encompassing nature, it defines where we are heading, and how we re getting there. And those are issues we should never stop talking about. And at some point, it s important to stop and query, what s in it for us? or as Janet Jackson put it ever so succinctly, what have you done for me lately (globalisation??). Economic disaster looms overhead a politically tumultuous time. Financial uncertainty enshrouds the insecure new world of the post-cold War era, where the common enemy is found in terrorist cells rather than in an eastern European superpower. The 1990s made us all aware of the globe s increasing interconnectedness, something we are being reminded of now as nation s economic policies are creating a domino effect throughout the world. The 1990s was concomitantly the decade of globalisation, as it was the decade of the harrowing humanitarian crises of Kosovo, Somalia and Rwanda, and the backdrop of the post-9/11 heightened focus on the Terrorism. The nature of conflict was and is changing, and demanding the interconnectedness to manifest in diplomatic processes that will prevent more innocent lives from being lost. And this is no more a pertinent issue than when looking at the Mother Continent. Contemporary Africa is synonymous with violent armed conflict, alarming humanitarian emergencies, perennial wars and political instability. We know this. We know how much of Africa s development has been impeded and corrupted by our own family. The origins and issues are complex and intertwined, battered, beat- 6 kush magazine vol vol.6 magazine kush 7

5 en and bruised throughout history, providing a legacy as hard to run away from as a genetic disease. I call the rest of the world our family because Michael Jackson (God rest his soul) has a point. We truly are, and have always been, whether we have liked it or not, the world. And the realities of our connection were highlighted in the 1990s, when we were all reminded, for better and for worse, much worse, how interconnected we truly are. This is and of itself demands a change in the perpetuating imbalances; a move away from the exploitation and plain and simple unfairness manifest in our world on a political, economic and cultural global scale. It is imperative to examine strategies that endeavour to provide security, both physically and spiritually; strategies that like roses growing in the concrete fight to keep hope alive. Fight to let humanity believe in change. That the global family can be a good thing. For it is understood that peace and security are fundamental prerequisites for any sustainable development or economic growth to take place. What else do we know? We know that the world cup was on african soil for the first time this year, an issue we delve into in the mag. We know that the younger generations are looking at themselves in a uniquely creative way, resiliently creating spaces for them to express their individuality and self-agency, even those who live upon the wreckages of poverty- an issue we look into in the Africa in the Image article (pp. 20). Globalisation means that one can travel further and create identities and lives for oneself that far surpasses the more rigid boundaries both culturally and geographically that surrounded our parents. And more young africans than ever before are a part of that wave; especially the ones whose socio-economic background has, more often than not, provided them with the possibility to seize the opportunities that have been lain in front of them. We tap into issues surrounding identity that comes with the fluidity of movement that globalisation refers to in our article Svart nordmann hvit afrikaner? (pp. 44). We know that the information wave is spreading to our continent, however slowly it may seem. We know that a black man holds the highest office in our world at the moment. That for all the despair that we must endeavour to rectify, a change has come. We know that family is good. And globalisation for all its intents and purposes, put forever in the ways in which we are interconnected, for better or worse. Enjoy KUSH and enjoy the festival! Blessings. 8 kush magazine vol vol.6 magazine kush 9

6 African leaders have long sought to change the world s perceptions of Africa, to rewrite the African narrative and to ultimately help the world re-image or re-imagine Africa. Despite decades, perhaps even centuries of trying, their efforts could, arguably, find no greater platform than the FIFA World Cup. Ten years ago The Economist, a London based financial weekly, led their 11 May 2000 front cover with a headline that read Hopeless Continent, pasted over a map of Africa. The response from Africans in particular, though not exclusively, was fiercely critical. Africa Editor Richard Dowden defended the front page and the corresponding three page article by saying that more than just pinning the continent down as hopeless (citing examples of war and conflict, disease and corruption), he actually sought to expose the internal and external forces that had compromised Africa in the 21st Century. He had attempted to show, he argued, that there was indeed hope for Africa; that Africa could change in a meaningful and sustainable way. But only if the continent could find its voice of selfconfidence in creating new economic and development programmes, institutions, solutions and policies that would work for Africa. Despite these positive affirmations and assertions of hope, it was really the front cover that did the damage. Whether intentional or not, it reinforced negative perceptions of Africa, and, in light of globalisation, further entrenched Africa s peripheral position in the global village. As Ghanian author and playwright Ama Ata Aidoo queried; What, one wonders, is the source of such malediction? What compels some editor in London or New York to characterize a whole continent of nearly 700 million people, and all of its 300,175,000 square kilometres as `hopeless? What have Africans done to deserve such absolute hexing? She added: We suspect that The Economist has got a really dark and sinister aim. Clearly, as our masters voice, one of its agendas is to make sure that Africans do not regain any of the selfconfidence they may have lost from the `Dark Continent label. In the first 64 years of the World Cup s history, the host nations had alternated between South America and Europe [with the USA (1994) and Japan/Korea (2002) being the first to break this trend]. The first African country to bid for the World Cup was Morocco in 1988, 1992 and again in 2000 alongside South Africa, England, Germany and Brazil. On this occasion South Africa lost the bid by one vote to Germany, the hosts of the 2006 World Cup. The controversy surrounding South Africa s loss resulted in a major victory for Africa. In 2001 FIFA declared that in future the World Cup would rotate between continents, starting with Africa. This meant that only African countries were invited to bid for the 2010 tournament. In 2004 South Africa and Morocco once again participated in the bid process, this time joined by Egypt and Libya/Tunisia (joint bidders). The announcement was to be made at 12:00 midday on the 15 th of May Bidders and their support teams waited with bated breath in a hall of the Zurich World Trade Centre. There was a delay. An official apologised saying they were waiting for one more guest. Rumour has it that former President Nelson Mandela had napped for a little too long that morning. Roused and ready, the ageing former statesman finally entered the hall just before 12:15 and the proceedings got underway. FIFA President Joseph Sepp Blatter, held an envelope in his hand and said, The host of the 2010 FIFA World Cup will be..., Slowly he pulled a card from the envelope and as the letters S-O-U-T-H A-F-R-I-C-A escaped from the top, there was no need for Blatter to finish his sentence. The crowd erupted with joyous applause. Usually stiff and controlled sports officials and businessman hugged like best friends, Madiba shed a tear. Amid the jubilation, the sound of a vuvuzela (a horn, red.) could be heard, it was not particularly loud but distinct enough to claim its debut on the world stage. South Africa, and indeed Africa, had arrived. Jermaine Craig, media manager for the South African World Cup Local Organising Committee (LOC), was a journalist at the time and travelled to Zurich with the South African delegation to find out which country would be the first to host a World Cup on African soil. Recalling that unforgettable day Craig said, Seeing Madiba on that stage with tears in his eyes saying he felt like a young man of 15 again; to see what it meant to him, carried me from then to now. It focused everyone; Danny Jordaan, Irvin Khoza the whole team. There was finally an understanding of the magnitude of what was happening. It was enormous for Africa. It would showcase what the continent could achieve. 10 kush magazine vol vol.6 magazine kush 11

7 In the six years that followed the bid announcement South Africa faced a barrage of insults that undermined the country s ability to host a credible event. Many doubted that the stadia and other infrastructure projects would be ready on time. There were fears that due to the country s high levels of crime, the safety of players, officials and tourists could not be guaranteed. There were rumours that FIFA had a plan B host country lined up. As recently as January 2010 Uli Hoeness, the president of Bayern Munich, said that giving the World Cup to South Africa was one of the worst decisions FIFA had ever made. And perhaps all the negative media and absolute doubt that an African country could pull this off, worked in our favour. The world would have to see it to believe it. According to fifa LOC (Local Organizing Committee) Chief Executive Officer Danny Jordaan, the 11th of June 2010 was the biggest news day in world history even bigger than the inauguration of Barack Obama which had held the title up until then. The opening of the World Cup in South Africa attracted 12 million internet users a minute. More than journalists, broadcasters and photographers were in the country to capture the event and send it out to the world. Eighty-four thousand, five hundred people (84 500) filled Soccer City and pierced the sky with a soaring and continuous buzzing chorus of vuvuzelas. Millions more did the same at fan parks, public viewing areas, bars and private homes across the country. South Africans were not alone as the continent joined in the excitement and we are all stood proud showing the world that Africa can! The media attention and global celebration of Africa continued throughout the tournament. The final match is said to have been watched by approximately 750 million people. And despite the naysayers predictions that no one would come to a World Cup in Africa, a total of 3.18 million people flocked to the stadiums to watch the games. There is immeasurable value in this sort of positive global exposure, said Jordaan addressing a recent national economic dialogue series, It cannot be quantified. The global attention aside, there is a need to quantify the economic value and impact of the World Cup. Many queried the logic in a country, with so many pressing socio-economic challenges, committing billions of dollars to a one month football fiesta rather than healthcare, or housing, or education etc. Speaking to New African magazine, Johnny Mokoena from Khayelitsha, a township outside Cape Town said that for him and his family, the World Cup did not signify great change. I still sleep on a hard floor... Will football help me to get a bed and a mattress? [Cape Town Stadium] will still be standing here when my neighbour dies due to the lack of treatment for TB. Where is the justice in that? Senior economist Dr Azar Jammine believes that now that the dust has settled, this must be a key focus of government, I think the one fault line in this whole thing is that [we] don t know to what extent the poorest sections of the community have benefited from the World Cup - the government needs to be seen to be doing something to improve the lot of the poor. Ultimately, an estimated R33 billion (US $ 4.54 billion) was spent by the national government on World Cup related projects; these include the stadiums, transport and communications infrastructure. (The figure doesn t account for the billions spent by municipalities on behalf of host cities.) As a result of this investment South Africa will continue to benefit from high-speed telecommunications networks, an improved roads network, a modern public transport system and world class stadiums. Government spokesperson Themba Maseko says initial calculations show that the World Cup has pumped an estimated R93bn into the local economy, but researchers say it may take three to five years to see the full scale of economic benefits of the World Cup. However, in the aftermath of the World Cup it is already clear that initial economic benefits were overstated. The tournament s contribution to gross domestic product (GDP) is estimated to be between 0.2% and 0.4%. Four years ago, economists had predicted a contribution to GDP of over 3%. Although jobs were created in the run up to the world cup, academic Dr Udesh Pillay is quick to point out that many of these were short-term contracts and that workers were eventually retrenched. But, he adds, in the context of our employment challenges, the creation of jobs is not insignificant. It was wholly unrealistic to expect that the World Cup would propel the continent towards the pinnacle of the African Renaissance. The World Cup will not have made the continent richer or any less plagued by HIV/Aids. We must still fight corruption. We must continue to work for peace throughout the continent. But the significance of the first World Cup on African soil must never be forgotten. The truth is, the world cannot look at Africa the way it did before. Africa s advancement in this modern age is inextricably linked to the consequences and implications of globalisation which have been largely negative. But, as Nigerian academics Akindele et. al suggest; if Africa is to survive the 21st century and its villagised new world order, the continent must empower itself to repossess its own development. One such way is to rebuild / rebrand national images and the collective image of Africa. The World Cup provided a unique opportunity to achieve this. To build our self-confidence as Africans and show the world that we must be counted among the best. By actively rebuilding and rebranding ourselves, using our own images, our own words, our own incessant vuvuzelas, we are ultimately insisting on own terms of membership in the global village. We forge a new position from which we speak for ourselves, from which we tell the world forget what you think you know about Africa. Ooh Child, let me tell you, let me show you what is Africa! As a people we have come a long way and thanks to the World Cup we now have the confidence to proclaim, as Danny Jordaan recently did: After the delivery of the [2010 World Cup] tournament no one will ever again have the courage to argue that Africa is a hopeless continent. 12 kush magazine vol vol.6 magazine kush 13

8 Jeg har aldri vært i Afrika, men jeg har veldig lyst til å dra dit. Jeg er halvt Sør Afrikansk og halvt Norsk. Jeg liker veldig godt fotball så det var utrolig kult at det endelig kunne blir et fotball VM på afrikansk jord. Det var jo veldig morsomt for meg at det første skulle være i Sør Afrika. De fleste Afrikanere har kanskje ikke så mye penger, men noe de har er glede og kjærlighet i masssevis. En mann som er veldig høyt elsket av alle er Nelson Mandela fordi han skapte fred istedenfor krig. Nelson Mandela er Sør Afrikaner. Han måtte sitte i fengsel i 27 år fordi han kjempet for de svarte i sitt eget hjemland. Jeg er stolt av å være Norsk og Sør Afrikansk!!! 14 kush magazine vol vol.6 magazine kush 15

9 The golden billion is a Russian term, referring to the relatively wealthy people in industrially developed nations, or the West. As globalisation transforms the worlds we live in, it has also begun to transform the ways in which we think. I have spent most of my life in South Africa, a wealthy country by African standards. After graduating from university, I went to work and live in Tanzania for two years. The quality of life there is in many respects better than in South Africa or even in the West. As such, the contemporary conceptualization of the golden billion can no longer view the first and third worlds as being in a geographic location. It refers, rather, to the relatively wealthier class of people, you and I, that are spread all over the world. In other words, the golden billion, and the third world are globalised. Tanzania and South Africa differ greatly in culture, climate and economy but both, like most places in the world, accommodate some of the golden billion. The distinctions between developed and developing countries are patent and numerous. But for all their distinctions, globalisation has insured that there are more elements that they have in common. Obvious indicators of first world living, such as luxury cars, branded sneakers and MP3 players are present in Bujumbura, São Paulo and New York. As are homeless people, bureaucracy and corruption. South Africa and Tanzania, are both African countries and therefore would technically, be considered third world. However, South Africa is interesting because it s not entirely third world nor is it entirely first world. Images of Cape Town, where I grew up, can easily be mistaken for any European city whereas such an error would not be easily made in the case of Tanzania s Dar es Salaam. Therefore, for the purposes of this discourse, and also be-cause of its relative relationship with Tanzania, South Africa represents the developed world. South Africa is a middleincome country with the capacity, technology and infrastructure to exploit its abundant supply of resources and welldeveloped financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors. South Africa generates more than 30% of the continent s wealth and even has a stock exchange that ranks among the top twenty in the world. Tanzania is also an incredibly resource-rich country, with vast amounts of diamonds, coal, uranium, platinum and other minerals. It is the third largest producer of gold in Africa and the only producer of the Tanzanite gemstone. However, lack of development hampers their ability to extract and manufacture natural resources and the economy is largely dependent on agriculture. As the wealthiest country on the continent, South Africa has a larger middle class than the average African nation. Because of its Apartheid history, the neighbourhoods for the wealthy are physically separate from the ones for the poor. Many privileged South Africans live in their wealthy clusters without seeing any signs of impecuniousness for days or even weeks on end. To be a member of the golden billion in a country like Tanzania, however, is a very noticeable privilege. While certain areas of Dar es Salaam are favoured by the wealthy there are still people of all income ranges living in most areas. Most roads in Tan-zania are not surfaced: generally only the main roads (and those where senior government officials reside) have tarmac and even then, they usually have potholes and seldom have pavements or curbs. There is no garbage collection, power and water outages are common and dust and bugs are everywhere. Malaria has been normalised to the point that many won t go to the doctor when they are ill. Inside many South African homes, one will find televisions connected to decoders that offer a plethora of viewing channels, internet access, fashion magazines and shopping mall brochures, pre-washed and packaged foods, manufactured furnishings and credit cards. In Tanzania, access to these luxuries is limited and a lot more expensive. Education in many South African public schools leaves plenty to be desired, but for a nominal fee parents can send their children to model-c schools for a world class education. In Tanzania, however, the education system itself is problematic. Primary education in in Kiswahili, and secondary education in English. The problem is pupils are seldom prepared for the transition form 16 kush magazine vol vol.6 magazine kush 17

10 ones with clout. Unfortunately, the African diaspora has meant that our continent has and continues to suffer a major brain drain. The educated middle class seeks greener pastures not realising what they have at home. With them, goes the potential for their countries to globalise at the rate that it could. Opponents of globalisation argue that it results in the homogenization of cultures and people, but there are many countries that have developed and managed to preserve the elements that make them distinct. I have heard people say that South Africa is not really Africa because it is developed - as though the two are mutually exclusive. South Africa has managed to maintain many cultural elements in its development and continues to do so. Just recently a stadium was built for the 2010 World Cup in Johannesburg - in the shape of a calabash. It seems the more complicated life gets, the simpler we want it to be. Developed countries had organic foods, but wanted to produce more foods quicker that was all perfectly homogenised, so they invented pesticides. And now everyone wants to revert to the previous state of affairs. People would grow their own foods, but then they moved into compact cities. And now they long to grow their food once more. If anything, developing countries can learn a few lessons from this and maintain the elements of the good life and focus on improving the elements that need it, such as governance. The golden billion are the ones with the resources and the ones with the means. In order for countries to develop and prosper, they need a stronger class of educated people with means to propel themselves forward. As Liberia s first female, Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf said Africa is not poor, it is poorly managed. Kiswahili to English. Preserving Kiswahili by retaining it as the national language was a way to inspire nationalism and prevent tribalism. However, it has made communicating in the english speaking, urbanized context more challenging. Many Tanzanian university graduates do not have the con-fidence, competence or skills to perform and compete in the Tanzanian job climate let alone the global one. But there is a lot more to Tanzania than meets the eye. On Sundays in Dar es Salaam, I would take a 5-minute walk to the beach and catch a dhow boat (a traditional arab sailing vessel, red.) which would deliver me to a choice of islands in 20 minutes. In less than half an hour, I was on a small island with icing sugar sands and swimming in the tanzanite blue waters of the Indian ocean. Fishermen would offer me fish, calamari and prawns, caught minutes earlier, which they would prepare on the beach. If I wanted to make a weekend affair of my beaching, Zanzibar, with its afro-arabian charm, is a 20 minute flight or 2 hour boat ride away. It is a spice island and even a simple dish of rice and lentils is fragrant and delicious. Tanzanian communities are well engaged. A displaced stranger is easily identified and children, from the big fancy mansions and the small rickety dwelling next to it, all play together. Tanzania is very peaceful and safe, whereas South Africa has one of the worst rates of crime in the world. Many locals plant their own fruit and vegetables in their gardens; the red and fertile soil always yields an abundance of organic produce. People also keep goats and chickens for milk and eggs. Consumers in South Africa and all across the world spend extra money for organic foods and free range eggs, while Tanzanians have these in their backyards. Because of the focus on agriculture, and because President Nyerere wanted each region to focus on their specialty, each Tanzanian has a unique and perfected food. Tabora region has a dark brawny honey; Mbeya has a delightful fragrant rice, Bukoba produces robusta coffee and Arusha grows arabica coffee; Morogoro pineapples are the sweetest and so on. In first world societies, the interest in farmer s markets, locavorism and organic foods, indicate that people are craving what Tanzania has to offer. Fast food is not easily accessible in Tanzania, because people prefer to and do eat well. The tropical climate means that there are ample supplies of bananas, pineapples, mangoes, watermelons, jackfruit, coconuts and other glorious fruits all year round. Fresh fish and seafood are also cheap and easily available. While South African supermarkets expand their offerings and refine their products and packaging to target wealthier consumers, Tanzanian fishermen sell their fish right by the sea and women who have grown spinach deliver it to your door at dawn. For all the pretty packaging available in South Africa, the quality of food in Tanzania for rich and poor alike is outstanding. Being poor in Tanzania may mean living in a mud hut, which at minimum keeps one cool in the heat, and growing foods for self-sustenance and maybe even for trading. Being poor in South Africa may mean living in a corrugated iron dwelling, in an overcrowded area vulnerable to the harsh winters and with no land to grow anything on. Access to health for the poor in Tanzania in an urban environment is challenging, whereas in rural areas at least some still have their natural remedies and practices for dealing with diseases; for example the use of the Arobaini ( Forty uses ) plant in Tanzania to treat malaria and other ailments. Although poor people in Tanzania may have less money than poor people in South Africa, their lives seem somehow more bearable. Living in, and having access to the things that provide one with comfort are characteristic of the golden billion. The world is only globalised for us, and because we control the resources we are the 18 kush magazine vol vol.6 magazine kush 19

11 Mozambicans identified themselves locally within the greater global context. This however is not only driven by globalisation in the sense we often use this concept today. In a bid to teach people the meaning of independence, imagery played a radical role in Mozambique s identity formation process as a nation in the mid 70 s and early 80 s. Here, Cinema became an agent of social change in assisting to build a different kind of specifically Mozambican revolutionary modernity. The resulting revolutionary imagery created in the fight against capitalist imperialism, is arguably evidence of a different kind of globalization, but also one woven out of connections and hopes lived and dreamed through cinema 1. What became of the seemingly unstoppable dream to re-create a new Mozambican personality which this embodied? Born in Maputo, Mozambique (1983) where I spent most of my childhood, before moving to South Africa and later the UK, I completed my Masters in Design with the thesis project Glocalisation in Mozambique: Local Youth Culture & Identity in a Global World. My thesis observed the impact that image-centred communication, driven largely by Western advertisers, had on how young urban Nowadays mass-media digital channels have opened Mozambique to the world by offering, on the one hand, a window to the carefully constructed images of the promise and abundance of Western lifestyles driven by heavily backed western advertisers. On the other hand, we experience offerings of cultural worlds anew where there is space to improvise. A turning point in African cultural history is thus present as - unlike their parents who experienced the pain of colonisation - young urban Mozambican cultural actors become equipped with the knowledge of how to operate and manipulate technology actively in order to find spaces to describe and re-scribe their identity. By using Image as a tool to portray their sense of self, they forge their sense of belonging to the images they most often only have the chance to spectate. This cultural engagement was essentially embedded with the same intentions in FRELIMO s (Front for the Liberation of Mozambique) mission to make films integral to social transformation, in a different media and different time, but with a similar self-consciousness use of the Image. Looking at the current discourses of social and cultural transformation, have the contemporary forms of innovation and engagement with the Image offered a voice with which young urban Africans can carve their own place in the world? Has it opened the world s view on identity and agency of cultural worlds in Africa? And where is the legacy of the hopes and dreams embodied in the culturally revolutionary imagery created around independence in Mozambique? Culture is dynamic and rarely an island developing on its own. In Marxism and Literature Raymond Williams writes: The strongest barrier to the recognition of human cultural activity is this immediate and regular conversion of experience into finished products. There are many theories evolved on the concept of identity, William s caution however, reminds us of the importance of adopting the premise that identities never arrive in persons or their immediate social milieu already formed. Much as culture and tradition are evolutionary, they happen in social practice and should be percieved of as a continual cultural performance that remains transformable and unfinished. This premise has come to underlie the focus of my work on: the changing nature of identities within the context of globalisation. In our rapidly changing and interconnected world where cultural dynamics meet, merge and forge, what is genuine? What is fake? It is this ceaseless negotiation between our imaginings and reality that intrigues me, created hybrid identities that speak of complex interconnectedness of global and local identities. Africa the vanguard of the world. Amílcar Cabral, A Arma da Teoria, Undide e Luta 1 Whilst oral and written forms still play a big role in the communication of social values, the culture of the Image, through the illustration and constructive visualisation of meanings and values, has an arguably greater impact on our identity shaping and self-actualisation processes. And for this reason it has long been employed as a tool to author and/or create social values. This is particularly evident in the rise of the consumerist culture. Advertisers in the machine-age quickly learned that the most effective way to sell products was not through stories or plain-text facts, but through the creation of images. Offering instructions on how to dress, how to behave, how to appear to others in order to gain approval and avoid rejection is to this day taught as a communication strategy, as it directly appeals to basic human needs and emotions. Around the time of Mozambican independence, Samora Machel, leader of the first democratic government, employed imagery, namely film, as a priority and fundamental tool to create a new nation. The Instituto Nacional de Cinema (INC) [National Institute of Cinema] was founded in Maputo to build a new society without exploitation for the benefit of all those who consider themselves Mozambican 2. Despite the lack of food, clothing, medical supplies and almost 95% of illiteracy at that time, Machel 20 kush magazine vol vol.6 magazine kush 21

12 believed that film should be a priority and fundamental tool in defining the new code - a new socialist republic. We place training, education and culture primarily at the service of the large masses oppressed and humiliated by the system of colonial and capitalist exploitation. The blood of our people was not shed only to liberate our land from its domination by foreigners but also to re-conquer a Mozambican personality, to create a new mentality, a new society. 3 The vast majority of people swept up in this radical process had no prior experience of the moving image and having no filmmaking facilities of their own, FRELIMO invited various foreign filmmakers to document and project the new kind of society that was in the making. It was a unique and unrepeatable moment when cinema was at the centre of a movement. In 1986 Samora Machel was killed when his plane was diverted mysteriously and crashed on South African territory. Soon after, FRELIMO formally renounced Marxist-Leninism, paving the way for the negotiations that led to the country having multiparty elections and embracing the free market 4. Consequently, due to a series of economic setbacks, including the withdrawal of support from Soviet bloc countries, state-supported cinemas across the country became redundant. This marked the end of an era in terms of a technological shift to television, video and digital forms, and a markedly different role for the state within these medias. But, as previously noted, the radical cinema programme was a form of globalisation itself, that was built on worldwide connections. In this, those who engaged saw the country as a site where there was still freedom to manoeuvre to create alternative kinds of collective experiences through cinema, in contrast to the West, where sonic and visual registers were already colonised by capitalist interests and ideologies 5. Gucci today: Guche tomorrow Pushing the frontiers of how we formulate new visual cultures in our ideas- driven world, young urban actors, in the cultural landscapes of Mozambique blur the distinctions between the local and the global in crafting their own identities. Tending to occupy the innovative and dynamic frontiers along which the stark reality of everyday Maputo life meets with the dreams and imagination of the good life, social recognition and esteem are sought through becoming actively involved in shaping the world around them and by formulating new languages which tell stories of creative optimism and manipulating Image is a key element of this activity. Looking to the current images driving identity formation in Mozambique and agency in cultural manifestation, the intention of my thesis was to question whether, in our rapidly changing and increasingly interconnected world, design could push the frontiers of how we formulate new languages and cultures in our image driven world? Re-interpreting Machel s radical cinema in different form, could encourage the re-conquering of the Image, and in this way, spark new ways of creating authentic endogenous engagement? The thesis resulted in the design proposal of Guche Magazine (Guche is the local phonetic spelling of high luxury brand Gucci). This was intended as a platform to further encourage the generation of ideas, but most importantly to open dialogue on the current discourse of the cultural transformation Mozambican urban culture is undergoing. The magazine was seen as a space to explore and express young Mozambicans own values by formulating their own design language and by defining, translating and accentuating the local culture within the greater global urbanscape. Guche also served as a recognition of the strengths and originality to be found in the creative endevour of urban youth by translating and accentuating local trends, whilst portraying the layers of negotiation that unfold between hoped for dreams and plain reality. Being directly involved in shaping the world around them emphasizes the importance and value of the position of the young in facing the challenges of future developments. Re-Birth of the radical Image Regarding Mozambique s history of self-actualization through the process of building a new culture through images, in retrospect, where have those dreams brought us today? Has the culturally revolutionary imagery created then left an influence (any visible or intangible legacy) on today s young Mozambicans? What image do they seek today? In pursuit of this image, are they active in adjusting images of themselves? How? These are questions being asked in a project, Birth of an Image, which I am currently developing alongside with Lucia Babina (Italy/Netherlands), a cultural producer and co-founder of istrike Foundation, and Jacopo Gandolfi (Italy/Turkey), a film maker. For a few brief years in the late 1970s and early 1980s Mozambique was a key site on the global map of radical cinema. It was a site where various experiments were carried out into how film might act as an agent of radical social change. Our interest is to investigate this particular historical condition and the impact of its filmatic output in the formation of a new state fighting for freedom against colonialism and for emancipation from underdevelopment. To quote Raymond Williams again, the strongest barrier to the recognition of human cultural activity is this immediate and regular conversion of experience into finished products. Through opening dialogue on the aspirational character driving identity formation in Africa today, I believe we can cultivate a more self-aware paradigm, and thus carve a more significant and distinct identity in the global cultural world. 1 Ros Gray, An Archive of Aspirations, From a public speech held by Samora Machel in 1977 in The State of Africa,Free Press, Great Britain, 2005, p Samora Machel, Declaramos Guerra ao Inimigo interno, Maputo, INLD, 1980, p Ros Gray, An Archive of Aspirations, Ibid 22 kush magazine vol vol.6 magazine kush 23

13 CULTURE Afrikan History Week Festival comes packed with music, dance, authors, poets, good food, seminars and spoken word (to name a few). This year for the first time we will have an art exhibition, entitled Synlig-Usynlig, as well as a panel debate, Visibly- Invisible: African Contemporary Art in Scandinavia featuring artists and curators. This will date the beginning of the visual arts section to AHW. It is important to add contemporary African art to the array of events as art stands as a means of expression for those things that may be beyond words. At the same time it can also stand as the catalyst that brings together several expressive forms from oral or audible text to music sustained by a visual. That is, art helps us transcend our barriers in ways that sometimes language or direct communication won t allow. There are things one can learn from art that we cannot learn from dialogue. Visual art finds its way to the subconscious, it can speak to the heart and mind both subtly and with great force. It takes the risks that dialogue is not always capable of doing. Art can communicate emotions, ideas, it can formulate perceptions through colour and form. It is as tangible as it is imperceptible. For this inaugural year, we have chosen local artists. We wanted to choose artists who are both part of the contemporary Oslo art scene, but whose roots (and therefore art) extends beyond the borders of Scandinavia, creating a bridge between Africa and Scandinavia. We find it important to support and represent the local artists in Norway as a starting point to the program. The artists in the exhibition come from all walks of life. Some have been working with visual art from day one while others have come in later in life deciding instead to lay their focus elsewhere, theater and dance, for example. can also be seen inspirations from surrealism, cubism and symbolism to name a few. One should take away the notion that contemporary African art is not solely diasporans artists representing Africa outside of the continent, but that it is also individuals expressing that which is found inside of themselves, their own thoughts and journeys. Of course make no mistake, art is not just about the visual. Artists are problem solvers, they carry messages and often their weapons are paint brushes, sculpture or video. Our panel debate Visibly-Invisible: African Contemporary Art in Scandinavia will feature two artists of the diaspora and a representative of the institutional side of art. They will discuss what it means to be an African artists living and working in Scandinavia, what challenges they face and how they are viewed by galleries and museums alike. This will be a chance for praise, criticism and opinions to be voiced and heard. This will be where art takes action. A large fear or setback for contemporary African artists is the risk of their work being seen as the work of the other. Artists of mixed race (or diaspora) are forced to contend with the idea, or rather the reality of being entangled between two cultures. The talking point that globalization has been, has still not ensured palpable distinctions of where we have come in terms of east versus west, south versus north, identity binaries, and the idea of the culture clash. These are only a few questions stemming from the topic of contemporary African art, and they decidedly give birth to more than one answer. With globalization comes the incessant progression and proliferation of ideas, materials, information, images, commodities as well as cultures and people. African contemporary art has become more visible in large part due to globalization in art and culture. Within the last 20 years African artists have been participating in the world biennials and art fairs. In the next several pages you will meet a few of Norway s visual artists participating in the exhibition Synlig-Usynlig. To see all of the works one should visit the exhibition running from the 15th to the 19th of September at Rikkscenen in Oslo. Just as they have come into art at different times in their lives, they have all come to Norway through different manners. They are representatives of the African diaspora. Some moved to Norway at a young age with their families while others came alone later in life. Through their art they show us their individual paths and beliefs, as well binaries of African identity. We see themes such as urban life, hope, diaspora, cultural identity and gender. There 24 kush magazine vol vol.6 magazine kush 25

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16 Samtiden vi lever i preges i alt for stor grad av skjev fordeling, utbytting av ressursene i de fattige delene av verden, og da i særklasse Afrika, et kontinent som er svært rikt på naturressurser, kultur og historie. Under det kapitalistiske systemet som definerer ressusfordelingen i dag, sitter disse områdene igjen med en alt for liten del av kaka. En kake som i utgangspunktet burde være mer enn stor nok til at alle skal kunne leve godt. Bedrifter og organisasjoner med profit som eneste mål begår rovdrift mot verdensdelen Afrika, samtidig som de gir svært lite tilbake. er ikke en slik organisasjon. Vi har som mål å bidra med positive prosjekter i de landene vi importerer produktene våre fra. Der andre bedrifter benytter seg av en hensynsløs politikk og utnytter billig afrikansk arbeidskraft for egen vinnings skyld, ønsker vi å bidra til å skape vekst og arbeidsplasser, samtidig som vi ønsker å bidra til en bedre infrastruktur gjennom filantropiske prosjekter. I første omgang planlegger vi for eksempel å bygge skoler i Etiopia, som er det første landet vi har valgt å sette fokus på. intervju er en non profit-organisasjon, noe som innebærer at alt overskudd fra forretningsdriften investeres i de nevnte prosjektene. Vi ønsker å gi noe tilbake til en verdensdel som har blitt neglisjert i alt for lang tid. Derfor baserer vi virksomheten vår på et sett prinsipper som kan sammenfattes med følgende setninger: Alle produktene vi selger gjennom nettsiden vår skal være produsert i Afrika. Videre skal det være kvalitetsprodukter skapt av lønnede voksne arbeidere. støtter ikke utbytting og barnearbeid. Videre er hovedprinsippet vi er tuftet på at vi skal bygge noe i de landene vi importerer produktene våre fra. Dette kan være skoler, sykehus og lignende. Med å være en ideell organisasjon følger et visst ansvar, og ved å følge disse retningslinjene føler vi at vi er med på å skape muligheter og bedre levevilkår, om enn i liten skala foreløpig, på det afrikanske kontinentet. sikt er målet å utvide sortimentet til også å omfatte tradisjonelle afrikanske smykker, klær, kunst og håndtverksgjenstander og lignende. Tanken er å stimulere næringlivet i de områdene vi har fokus på, og å gjøre noe bra for lokalsamfunnet rent utover de filantopiske prosjektene vi vil gjennomføre. Foreløpig er vi en liten organisasjon, men vi føler at vi har et svært godt konsept på gang. Vi mener at vi ved å importere disse gjenstandene også fyller et hull i det norske markedet, og at det dermed også er gode muligheter for fremtidig vekst. Noe som igjen selvsagt vil gi muligheten til å stimulere næringslivet i og rundt våre afrikanske satningsområder, samtidig som det vil bli frigitt mer penger til veldedige prosjekter. Vi ser et klart vekspotensiale her. For enhver organisasjon, ideell eller ikke, er det viktig å markedsføre seg selv. Her har vi flere ulike strategier. Vi tenker blant annet å selge et signaturprodukt, en pin, et armbånd eller lignende, for å øke folks bevissthet og engasjement rundt prosjektene våre. Vi er også meget opptatt av informasjon, og alle våre kunder vil få fortløpende informasjon om fremgangen ved prosjektene våre i Afrika. Når et stykke land er kjøpt, når grunnmuren til en skole er lagt, vil dette dokumenteres og sendes elektronisk til alle våre kunder, slik at de hele tiden får førstehåndskunnskap om hvordan deres penger benyttes. Kundene vil i tillegg få et sertifikat/bevis som illustrerer at de har støttet Ellers vil vi ha stands på diverse messer, og har i år innledet et samarbeid med African History Week, en festival med lange tradisjoner når det gjelder å eksponere afrikansk kunst, dans, kultur og lignende. Vårt håp er at vi gjennom disse tiltakene vil øke folks bevissthet rundt, og gjennom denne økte bevisstheten bidra til å gjøre mer positivt. Foreløpig selger fotokunst produsert i Etiopia, men på 30 kush magazine vol vol.6 magazine kush 31

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18 Organisering på bakgrunn av kjønn har for mange vært forbundet med kvinnekamp. Men, mennene er også på banen. Mannsforskning og aksjonsgrupper for menn har dukket opp i mange land. Også Sør-Afrika har fått sine mannsorganisasjoner. I løpet av det siste tiåret har organisasjoner som South African Men s Forum, South African Men s Action Group og Positive Men s Movement blomstret og ment mangt og mye om menns utfordringer. De fokuserer på alt fra reproduktiv helse til kulturelle tradisjoner, konfliktløsning, ekteskapsproblematikk og farsrollen. Og flere av organisasjonene fokuserer spesielt på svarte menns identitet. svarte menns utfordringer Da South African Men s Forum ble dannet i 1997 pekte en av grunnleggerne, professor Bongani Khumalo, på menns rolle i kriminalitet, vold og moralsk forfall, og oppfordret alle menn til å bli aktører for endring. Og utfordringene svarte menn står ovenfor i Sør-Afrika sammenfaller i stor grad med problemstillinger som opptar svarte menn i vestlige land; Sammenhenger mellom arbeidsledighet, sosial og politisk eksklusjon, kriminalitet, vold, familie- og forsørgeransvar. Det stereotype bildet av svarte menn som arbeidsuvillige, kriminelle og uansvarlige har blitt prentet så godt inn at mange tar det for en sannhet. Er den svarte mannen blitt udugelig? Flere stemmer tar til motmæle. Den afrikansk-amerikanske filmskaperen Janks Morton viste ifjor sin film What Black Men Think under Afrikan History Week på Litteraturhuset i Oslo. I filmen tar han et oppgjør med det han mener har blitt skapte sannheter om svarte menn. Det er ikke, statistisk sett, riktig at svarte menn er gjenomgående overrepresentert i fengsler, kriminalitet og vold. Han mener at et vesentlig faremoment ligger i at de negative sannhetene har blitt repetert så mange ganger at unge svarte menn selv begynner å tro at dette er de eneste rollene de kan fylle. Stereotypene blir en slags drivkraft for selvoppfyllende profetier. Mange vil huske Million Man March fra 1995, da Louis Farrakhan fra Nation of Islam inngikk et bredt samarbeid med afrikansk-amerikanske organisasjoner for å samle en million svarte menn til en day of atonement. Dette ga på mange måter et startskudd for en mer bevisst svart mannebevegelse internasjonalt. Men har denne bevisstheten ført til endring? svarte menns dominanse Nikol Alexander-Floyd, kjønnsforsker fra USA beskriver den generelle debatten om diskriminering og rasisme som en mannsdominert og unyansert diskurs. Det snakkes lite om forholdet mellom kjønn, klasse, rase og etnisitet, man fortsetter å diskutere som om rase er en ren kategori og at konflikt mellom raser kun utkjempes av mannlige medlemmer. Hun mener også at menn bidrar til at åpenhet om kvinnediskriminering og overgrep holdes nede og forties i en slags gruppe-solidaritet, hvor den svarte mannen ikke må støtes eller angripes. Men den nye mannsbevisstheten er ikke nødvendigvis uenig i denne kritikken. Tvert imot er det nettopp mange svarte menn som har tatt innover seg disse forholdene og ønsker å endre dem. Desmond Lesejane, sør-afrikansk prest og aktivist, mener at man må se på årsakene til at menn idag nærmest er redusert til en rolle som kun potensielle overgripere. Han ser tapet av afrikanske kulturverdier hvor det var strenge krav til menns ære og ansvar som bakgrunn for at mange menn idag utøver destruktive roller. I tillegg ser han utviklingen som en del av en historisk prosess: En negativ syklus, som ettervirkning av århundrer med slavehandel, kolonisering og kulturell berøvelse. hegemonisk maskulinitet Fremstillingen av afrikanske menn som dyreaktige, barnlige, hyper-seksuelle og primitive inngår i en lang eurosentrisk tradisjon. Og selv idag forbindes svart maskulinitet først og fremst med fysiske og kroppslige prestasjoner på idrettsbanen, dansegulvet, konsertscenen, bokseringen og fotballarenaen. Disse arenaene har ikke bare en aksept for svarthet, men bidrar til å dyrke myter knyttet til svarthet, opprettholde dem og forsterke dem. Den svarte mannen er fortsatt det ultimate eksempel på rovdyret, hingsten, skurken og smooth-talk ern. Den australske maskulinitetforskeren Raewyn Connell har introdusert begrepet hegemonisk maskulinitet. Det hegemoniske viser til det som oppfattes som naturlig og som dermed blir allment akseptert i et samfunn. Den hegemoniske maskuline kroppen den hvite opprettholder en illusjon om at den er autentisk; den fremstår som verken iscenesatt eller konstruert. Slik blir den også vanskelig å se og kritisere. Mot denne normalen blir svart maskulinitet en svært synlig annerledeshet som hvit maskulinitet kan speiles mot og ta avstand fra, men alltid må kontrollere. Svart maskulinitet vekker både nysgjerrighet og avsky. den kuede mannen Det er selvsagt store forskjeller på hvordan kjønn og rase utspiller seg i Sør-Afrika og i vestlige land. Sør-Afrika har, i motsetning til for eksempel Norge, et flertall av afrikanske politikere, opinionsledere og lærere. Landet har også en svart middel-klasse som, sett i vestlig målestokk har greid det og tilegnet seg en livsstil som indikerer suksess. I det minste kan man si at bredden av afrikanske, mannlige rollemodeller er mangfoldig. Samtidig, Sør-Afrika flyter over av negative mannsbilder; Arbeidsløse menn, maktesløse menn, overgriper-menn, fattige menn, kriminelle menn. Menn som føler seg kuet og desperate under et økonomisk system de ikke får innsyn i, et politisk klima de opplever de ikke har noen innflytelse på og en vedvarende maktesløshet som gir utslag psykologisk, sosialt og kulturelt. En beskrivelse som trolig mange afrikanske menn i Norge ville kunne kjenne seg igjen i. Da Ali Farah ga sin meget kritiserte respons til ambulansesjåfør Erik Schjenken (Ny Tid 9. oktober 2008) ga han også en stemme til den maktesløse svarte mannen. Pepperet han fikk i ettertid har kanskje gjort at afrikanske menn i Norge velger å være tause? en ny, svart maskulinitet? Svart maskulinitet ser ut til å hvile på et grumsete fundament av forestillinger, undertrykking og marginalisering. En maskulinitet som mange afrikanske menn føler de må leve opp til selv om de nødvendigvis ikke er enige i verdiene den bygger på. Det har blitt fokusert mye på svarte menns negative atferd, men ikke så mye blir sagt om årsakene. Det fokuseres lite på hva som skjer psykologisk i menns personlighet når de utsettes for vedvarende fattigdom, umyndiggjøring, kulturtap og paternalisme. Siden så mange afrikanske menn ikke kjenner seg igjen i de negative beskrivelsene blir et viktig spørsmål hva de selv skal gjøre med problemet. I Sør-Afrika organiserer menn seg for å slå hull på mytene og stake ut veier for en ny, svart maskulinitet. Hva skal afrikanske menn i Norge gjøre? 34 kush magazine vol vol.6 magazine kush 35

19 Det første mora mi sa da hun så SOS Svartskjær, en barnefilm jeg var med i, var Å nei, han er narkoman. Hun trodde jo selvfølgelig at jeg skulle spille the bad guy i filmen. Dreadlocks hadde jeg og, dessuten. Men så viste det seg at min rollefigur var en snill og blid familifar som hadde flyttet ut i havgapet sammen med sin norske kone, en stereotyp det også. I mitt forhold til norske blonde jenter, er jeg veldig opptatt av hvorfor de velger seg svarte gutter. Jungle Fever er mer enn myten om stor penis, og vi afrikanske menn jager etter blondiner ikke bare fordi det var den forbudte frukt. Så hva er det egentlig? I min omgangskrets møter jeg mange damer, gamle som unge som identifiserer seg med afrikansk kultur. Enten det er reggaemusikk, «bongotrommer» eller afrikansk dans. De vil lære seg å vrikke med hoftene, bære barna sine på ryggen og lage fufu (ugali i øst, pap i sør). De har ofte forutinntatte meninger om afrikanere. «Dere tåler ikke melkeprodukter», «Dere har alle sigdecelle anemi», «Dere har så urtolig flott rytmesans» osv. Det aller beste er holdningen om at blandingsbarn er verdens vakreste. Jo lenger man er fra hverandre genetisk, blond og blåøyd til svarteste, ibenholt tuareg, jo skjønnere blir resultatet. De vil alle ha sjokoladebarn. Jeg er usikker på om de føler det er deres bidrag i kampen mot rasisme å ha barn på tvers av raseskillet. Man er ikke mindre rasist om man tar inn en svarting i familien, eller har barn med en. En vennine presterte å si en gang for mange år siden: «Nå har jeg endelig funnet meg en ekte neger». Jo ferskere man er, rett fra jungelen, jo bedre er det. De vil ihvertfall ikke ha noen «internegrerte» gutter. Med all importen av «ekte negre», er det forståelig at enkelte nordmenn skjelver i buksa når de tenker på antallet sjokoladebarn i fødselsstatistikken. Min tvillingbror ble tilbudt kroner tidlig på nittitallet for å befrukte en norsk dame. Når man ser feite, hvite, gamle damer med kjekke, svarte, unge menn lurer man på hvem som er negerhorene, oss eller dem? Hvor mange har ikke vært sammen med en norsk dame bare for å ha et sted å bo? Det er riktignok ikke bare afrikanere, men nesten alle menn går gjennom noe lignende i løpet av oppveksten. Noen menn vokser aldri opp, og er alltid avhengig av en eller annen dame, fra mamma til kone. Vi blir ikke kvitt negerhore stempelet før vi tar vårt ansvar som voksne menn og tar vare på familien. Der begynner respekten, verdigheten og starten på rasismens død. Jeg har opplevd å være veldig populær når jeg snakker engelsk for så å bli totalt uinteressant når de oppdager at jeg hadde vært i Norge i lengre tid. Det er mulig at internegrerte menn har mistet noe av verdigheten sin. Det finnes ikke noe som er så flott som en stor og stolt neger. Hvor mange afrikanske menn i Norge stammer ikke fra en eller annen høvdingslekt? «Hvorfor har afrikanere så stor pikk? Det er fordi det er det eneste den hvite mann ikke har tatt fra oss... ennå.» Dette er vårt sterkeste våpen. Vi utgjør neppe noen trussel, økonomisk eller militært, men vår kapasitet til å nedlegge hvite kvinner og lage barn med dem, er en reell fare for rasehateren. For å integreres i det norske samfunnet må man ikke bare assimileres og sosialiseres for å knekke de kulturelle kodene, men også bidra med noe eget. Dette skjer av seg selv og trenger ikke være bevisst. Hvorfor ønsker så mange afrikanere å være norske, eller å bli akseptert som nordmenn? Et lands kultur er i konstant utvikling. Denne utviklingen er en dynamisk prosess og kan ikke påskyndes. Det er fåfengt å si «Nå må nordmenn skjerpe seg og vise at vi også er flerkulturelle. Næringslivet, kulturlivet og det offentlige må reflektere vårt kulturelle mangfold.» Hvilket mangfold? Selv ønsket jeg å være norsk som liten, eller i det minste å vise at jeg var minst like god som dem. Jeg hadde en «chip» på skulderen min. Jeg var heldig og ble sendt på internatskole i Africa. Der fant jeg min Afrikanske identitet, noe jeg unner alle 2. og 3. generasjons innvandrere. Nå krangler jeg med mora til sønnen min. Han er 9 år gammel, aldri vært i Afrika. «Kan vi ikke flytte dit, jeg og ham? Det er viktig at han får en del av barndommen i sitt fars land.» «Erru gærn», sier hun «Aldri i livet om du får stikke av med min sønn.» Stikker man av med barna sine til hjemlandet, risikerer man å få spesialsoldater på nakken. Nå er jeg heldig med min baby mamma, for hun er villig til å bli med på ferie til hjemlandet, men det er mange venner av meg som falt i fella og som nå av forskjellige årsaker, er nektet samvær med sine sønner og døtre. Barn har det bra i Norge, med barnehageplass, barnebidrag og barnevernet. Men hva med deres kultur? Storfamilien tar ansvar for ungene de også. Det er ikke til å unngå at «brune» barn før eller siden opplever en eller annen form for identitetskrise, særlig når de har hatt liten kontakt med far. Det er fint at det finnes fora for minoritetsungdom å utfolde seg, møte andre i samme situasjon og få inspirasjon og farsfigurer. Skolesystemet har kommet lengre i morsmåls (farsmål) undervisning, folklore, historie t.o.m musikkundervisning. Da kan man begynne å snakke om integrering, når man finnner kulturelle elementer fra alle verdenshjørner på skolen. For det er på skolen man får opplæring i å bli en fullverdig borger i et mangfoldig og flerkulturellt samfunn. 36 kush magazine vol vol.6 magazine kush 37

20 38 kush magazine vol vol.6 magazine kush 39 Arts Council Norway. starting point. Curator s: Åse Løvgren and Karolin Tampere Bik Van der Pol ISBN 978-82-998363-0-2 Arts Council Norway. starting point. Curator s: Åse Løvgren and Karolin Tampere Bik Van der Pol ISBN 978-82-998363-0-2 By-utvikling krever energi og forurenser, dermed fremskyndes krisen - og det er bra. Så vokser ting fortere, ikke sant? Maksimer karbonavtrykket, skap et enormt kaos! Vi trenger kaos for å blir fullstendige,


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