1 International profiling of the Oslo Region Stakeholder analysis 8th October 2014
2 Content 2 Background Methodology Analysis of external stakeholders Analysis of internal stakeholders Appendix: Building the data basis
4 Background 4 The purpose of the analysis is to provide a basis for systematic stakeholder involvement in the Oslo Region s international profiling initiative. Internal as well as external stakeholders will be approached in order to gather input and build support for the initiative. The analysis gives an assessment of main stakeholder groups and how their interests may be approached. Our recommendations have been shared with the Oslo Region through meetings with Gambit s sector experts, and a summary is given in this report. The stakeholders of this project are businesses, institutions, organisations, elected representatives and prominent personalities with a clear stake or interest in the region s international profile, in relation to attracting competence (labour and students), business (investments, establishments, R&D) and visitors (tourism and professional travel) or more generally enhancing awareness of the region among potential international partners. In assessing stakeholders, we have emphasized their representativeness in terms of being typical or representing important diversity, but primarily their potential impact on the goal achievement of the project. Priority has been given to stakeholders that can serve as a channel to a large number of interested parties within their segment. The direction of the analysis (data base, scope, format in which recommendations are reported) has been shaped through the project, in dialogue with the client. In particular, the element of providing operative recommendations for how to approach specific stakeholders has been toned down compared to the original specification of the analysis, placing emphasis more firmly on recommendations on how to prioritise between stakeholders. Due to the forms of involvement that will be utilised going forward (interviews and workshops), a main challenge in the analysis has been to keep the number of stakeholders on a manageable level. Therefore, a large number of stakeholders that are highly relevant to the project are not on our lists of contacts for this project phase. Though the analysis covers a very wide range of potential stakeholders, it is not all encompassing, and some interests or groups have been defined as out of scope. This is e.g. the case for Oslo based brands, which would require a very different analytical approach and which Oslo Business Region already has thorough insight into.
6 The methodology in brief 6 Our analyses of the various stakeholder groups and their interests have been based on extensive materials provided Oslo Business Region, as well a number of meetings with the client. We have had no contact with potential target audiences in this process, as specified by the client in the tender process. Key documents have been Osloregionen et næringsliv basert på kunnskap. Menon Business Economics (2013). Et internasjonalt konkurransedyktig Oslo og Akershus - Fra kunnskap og fakta til strategi og handling. Menon Business Economics (2013). Næringsnettverk i Osloregionen. Oxford Research. Aktørkartlegging i Osloregionen. Osloregionens sekretariat (2013). Strategi for kulturnæringene. Oslo Kommune. Samfunnsøkonomisk analyse av reiselivsnæringen i Oslo. Menon Business Economics (2014) The main resources from Menon Business Economics and Oxford Research provide thorough materials on cluster dynamics and other economical factors, with a particular focus on internationally competitive business and knowledge clusters in the region. Our approach takes this basis as its point of departure, and mainly uses the same groupings of units into clusters of industries. We have however supplemented the statistical material from Menon with SSB materials, in order to better capture important sectors which are not necessarily knowledge intensive and exposed to international competition (e.g. retail trade), and in order to balance out a bias towards the large and established sectors. In addition, we have looked at the 25 largest enterprises in each of the 75 associated local municipalities, to ensure that important local businesses and institutions are taken into consideration regardless of the sectors they represent. Through this, we aim to ensure a degree of representativity in the material for the whole of the Oslo Region. An excel spreadsheet containing our gross lists of potential stakeholders has been made available to the client, as a resource for their further work. Based on these materials, a qualitative assessment has been made for a number of sectors, by our in house sector expertise. The selection criteria are described on page 4 in the description of what constitutes a stakeholder, and under the headlines «Approach to external stakeholders» and «Approach to internal stakeholders». In the appendix, the process of preparing the basis for our qualitative assessments is described more in depth.
7 A process in five steps Primary and secondary research Identify dimensions and scores Quantitative scores and adjustments Qualitative review and data quality assurance Report: mapping and recommendations Identify key stakeholder groups, their interests and potential impact on project. Identify dimensions: Classification, weighting and relativity. Quantify findings and assess stakeholders relative strength, both as individual entities and as groups/clusters. Review score card, using qualitative input. Consider need for adjustments to dimensions, weights and scores. Mapping and recommendations on how to differentiate stakeholder approaches.
8 ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS
9 Approach to external stakeholders 9 External stakeholders have been identified through top-down segmentation by industry, with an emphasis on selections made in preceding studies around internationally oriented clusters. Within each industry, stakeholders have been selected according to an assumed interest and positioning vs. the project, with a tri-sectional attribution according to type of approach: Inform, Motivate or Mobilise. For a resource efficient procedure, emphasis has been placed on approaching functional trade associations for industries where this is possible, supplemented by leading companies and stakeholders representing important variety within its segment or region. In cases where leaders are thought to take a personal interest in the project, and for recommended individual meetings, individual points of contact have been identified. Some individuals have also been included because of their Key Opinion Leader (KOL) status and media impact, even if their direct interest in the project or its targets may not be strong. Wherever a particular angle (skills, capital, visitors or business location) is of relevance, the comments field has been used to qualify a potential alignment of interest.
10 Industries and sectors 10 The following industries and sectors are covered by the analysis: Maritime Offshore Renewable energy and environment Metal and materials Finance IT Knowledge based service Real estate and construction Tourism Retail trade Health Culture Education and research The group structures characterising different industries and sectors will obviously vary. Some have distinct sub segments with no interaction between them (such as Renewable energy and environment), while other sectors may constitute more of an industry value chain. Similarly, the different interests of sub groups and single stakeholders may be more or less uniform across an industry or sector. This variety is reflected in the format of our analyses and recommendations related to the respective industries and sectors.
11 Maritime 11 The maritime industry is one of the largest and most competitive clusters in the region, with prominent international elements in its competence base, innovation dynamics and access to capital. The maritime industry is one of few to raise international financing and generate large scale international establishments in the region. The project objective will have a clear following in the industry, but also expectations of efficient measures and tangible results from the Oslo Region profiling project. The industry already has well-established structures for securing recruitment and strong knowledge dynamics in the industry, through the Global Maritime Knowledge Hub, The Norwegian Shipowners' Association's Maritime Trainee program etc. There are several prominent organisations within the industry, and we strongly recommend drawing upon these when engaging the maritime industry. Maritimt Forum for the Oslo Fjord Region is an active collaborative body for shipowners, industry, service industries, research and development, and more, and constitutes a natural hub for these relations. At the same time there are prominent organizations, companies and individuals who show great commitment and have extensive experience with these issues. In terms of the involved companies, they constitute some of Norway's largest and most international companies (DNV GL, Wilhelmsen, Jotun, etc.), and smaller companies operating in the global market. Maritime stakeholders exist virtually throughout the entire region, which in turn represents an opportunity for involving industry representatives in local processes. A few maritime stakeholders will also have a high level of interest and vast experience with profiling the Oslo area as a destination. This is the case for, among others, Color Line and Nor-Shipping. Technology and service related sections of the cluster have their operations in maritime offshore, therefore many of these are covered in the section for the offshore industry below.
12 Sektor Maritimt Virksomhet Kommune Formål med kontakt Form på primær oppfølging (plassering av hovedvirksomhet) Informere Motivere Mobilisere Individuelt gruppe Annet Maritimt Forum Oslofjordregionen Oslo x x MF-møte Norges Rederiforbund Oslo x MF-møte Norsk Skipsmeglerforening Oslo x MF-møte Norsk Industri - maritim bransjeforening Oslo x MF-møte Color Line Oslo x MF-møte Shipping & Offshore Network Oslo x x NOR-Shipping Lillestrøm x x I.M. Skaugen Oslo x Höegh Autoliners Oslo x Wilhelmsen Maritime Services Bærum x Kongsberg Maritime AS Horten med mer x DNV-GL Bærum x FMC Kongsberg Subsea AS Buskerud x Aker Solutions AS Bærum x HTS Maskinteknikk Buskerud x Westad Industri Buskerud x Sleipner Motor Fredrikstad x Dresser-Rand Buskerud x Andritz-Hydro Jevnaker x
13 Offshore 13 We have divided all stakeholders in the offshore industry into three subsections operators, suppliers and organisations, to clarify the difference between these companies. Among the oil companies and suppliers, the suppliers definitely constitute the majority of employment in the region, but at the same time the oil companies have a bigger public voice and functions as opinion leader for the industry on issues related to competence. Statoil and Lundin have been defined as prioritised targets among the oil companies Statoil for its size, Lundin for its local presence and clear public voice they are often consulted as an alternative to Statoil. Among the suppliers we have done a cross section to make sure at least one actor from each main category is represented in the region, in addition to some of the largest players. Aker Solutions is on the list because of its size, while FMC is on the list as a representative for the subsea cluster (and Kongsberg), BW Offshore as representative for the FPSO cluster, PGS as representative for seismic, Fred. Olsen as the representative for the rig industry, and so forth. In addition to the large players, Tess has also been included as a smaller stakeholder. This is due to the fact that the company has set the agenda in the cluster organisation Subsea Valley, and that the company is a clear industry voice in the Subsea Valley area. We recommend to use industry organisations and arenas to reach a wider group of relevant companies within the sector, and to in parallel have direct contact with a select group of single companies.
14 Sektor Oljeselskaper Leverandører Organisasjoner Virksomhet Kommune (plassering av Formål med kontakt Form på primær oppfølging hovedvirksomhet) Informere Motivere Mobilisere Individuelt gruppe Annet Lundin Norway Bærum x x Statoil Bærum x x FMC Technologies Kongsberg x x Technip Bærum x x Aker Solutions Bærum x x DNV GL Bærum x x BW Offshore Oslo x x Agility Group Sandefjord x x ABB Oil & Gas Asker x x PGS Oslo x x Fred Olsen Energy Oslo x x TESS Norge Lier x x Norsk olje og gass Oslo x x NPF Oslo x x Subsea Valley Asker x x Norsk Industri Oslo x x
15 Renewable energy and environment 15 There are three main branches in this industry, and they should all be involved in the project. The recycling industry is growing in the region, while most other industries are reducing the number of traditional industrial workplaces. The need for international profiling is mainly associated with attracting manual labour in this respect the industry represents a part of regional industries with a low score on some of the parameters for attractive clusters, but is still significant and growing. We recommend involving the trade association The Federation of Norwegian Industries, which is an active organisation with a high level of trust from its members. Parallel to this, large and profiled companies within the main categories waste collection, recycling and destruction can be involved. Several of these stakeholders are located outside of the central Oslo area, and could contribute to balance a potential dominance from Oslo. Hydropower production and power distribution are large industries with a number of companies in the region. However, few have their production operations and direct customers in the area. Their interest in international profiling would primarily revolve around the recruitment of engineers and other technical personnel. An important part of this story is also the fact that power companies are important parts of society in the municipalities where they have their production operations or of which they are owned. The largest actors, Hafslund and Statkraft, would be interested in contributing to increase the pool of resources in their special field through international recruitment. Energy Norway is an efficient representative for the interests of smaller hydropower producers, and could ensure that suggestions from the industry take the entire region into consideration. Other electricity production is a growing industry, but the totality of actors is characterised by many smaller units and few companies in the mature phase. We recommend involving a few prominent actors with significant competence and actual production see the attached excel list for more details. Their interest in the project would be linked to the recruitment of engineers and dynamics in the knowledge community.
16 Sektor Ny energi Gjenvinning Virksomhet Kommune (plassering av Formål med kontakt Form på primær oppfølging hovedvirksomhet) Informere Motivere Mobilisere Individuelt gruppe Annet Fellesmøte Hafslund ASA Oslo x energi Statkraft Oslo x Fellesmøte energi EnergiNorge Oslo x Fellesmøte energi Fellesmøte ny Fred Olsen Renewables Oslo x energi Fellesmøte ny Scatec Solar Oslo x energi Norsk Industri: Fellesmøte Gjenvinningsbransjen Oslo x gjenvinning NOAH Holmestrand x Fellesmøte gjenvinning Norsk Gjenvinning Oslo x Fellesmøte gjenvinning Renor Aurskog x Fellesmøte
17 Metal and materials 17 Three large industrial stakeholders within the metal industry could be relevant for involvement in this project. SAPA and Norsk Hydro have their headquarters in Oslo and industrial operations in Eastern Norway. International recruitment for managerial positions is essential for the continued competitiveness of both these companies, and this may particularly be the case in terms of recruiting from the most important international markets and production sites. In the case of SAPA, the access to leaders could be a prerequisite for continued localisation in Norway. Elkem will also share this objective of raising international managerial recruitment, while their Chinese ownership could be a gateway for profiling the Oslo region in Asia. Norsk Hydro and SAPA are pointed out as important sources for suggestions throughout the project. Their participation could also be a catalysing factor for other industrial stakeholders.
18 Virksomhet Kommune (plassering av Formål med kontakt Form på primær oppfølging hovedvirksomhet) Informere Motivere Mobilisere Individuelt gruppe Annet SAPA Oslo/Magnor x x Norsk Hydro ASA Oslo/Holmestrand x x Elkem Oslo x
19 Finance 18 Many representatives of the financial industry may have an ambivalent view on the project. Particularly those on the sell-side of the market, such as investment banks and brokers, may see an international campaign to promote Oslo as a financial hub as a threat, by increasing competition through the introduction of new foreign institutions. At the same time, some of them may see benefits from the broader scope of attracting other industries and not least highly qualified labour to the region. Within venture capital, Norwegian Venture Capital Association (NVCA) and Oslotech/StartupLab should have a strong interest in attracting innovative, R&D-driven companies and sources of venture capital to Oslo. We see no obvious conflict of interests. The maritime finance hub is a strong candidate for cooperation. Oslo Stock Exchange wants to have more foreign companies listed. Their strategy for suggests that the strongest common interest with this project is around maritime and marine industries (shipping, energy, seafood). DNB and Nordea are large within the maritime sector internationally. We propose a maritime approach to mobilise interest and support from these banks, in addition to a focus on supplies of qualified job candidates. While most brokers may see an equal number of disadvantages as benefits from an international profiling exercise, those who are part of the maritime cluster may consider it differently. In particular RS Platou, with its strong position both as ship broker and investment bank, and with an excellent international network. Eksportkreditt Norway has its business rationale in government guaranteed export credits, and should therefore have a good partnership potential. They also have a current need to inform their clients, particularly SMBs in the districts, about their services, which possibly could be connected with the Oslo Region s activity towards members outside the capital. Other financial hub stakeholders we propose to engage are ABG Sundal Collier and the BI research environment surrounding Torger Reve, which constitutes the cluster theory s main sponsor in Norway. Stakeholders who mainly should be motivated: The Finance Sector Union of Norway: If the project is primarily seen as an effort to draw highly qualified labour to the region, it may well be perceived as a threat. If it instead is positioned as attracting new companies, which would cater for a growth in memberships, that would strengthen the interest alignment. Landkreditt, Eika, Sparebank 1: These are all financial institutions with headquarters in Oslo, but with their main client base outside the capital, some of them also partly outside the Oslo Region s domain. With the right introduction, they may, along with KLP and Gjensidige, be used to activate some of the region s member outside of Oslo, since they themselves represent a similar centerperiphery solution.
20 Sektor Virksomhet Kommune (plassering av Formål med kontakt Form på primær oppfølging hovedvirksomhet) Informere Motivere Mobilisere Individuelt gruppe Annet Finans Norge Oslo x x Norges Fondsmeglerforbund Oslo x x Verdipapirfondenes Forening Oslo x x Norsk venturekapitalforening Oslo x x Finansforbundet Oslo x x Finans DNB BankASA Oslo x x NORDEA Bank Norge ASA Oslo x x Landkreditt Bank AS Oslo x x Eika Gruppen AS Oslo x x SpareBank 1 Gruppen Oslo x x Gjensidige Forsikring ASA Oslo x x KLP Liv Oslo x x Ernst & Young Oslo x x PricewaterhouseCoopers AS Oslo x x BDO AS Oslo x x Deloitte AS Oslo x x KPMG AS Oslo x x Storebrand Livsforsikring AS Lysaker x x Oslo Børs VPS Oslo x x Pareto Securities AS Oslo x x Arctic Securities ASA Oslo x x RS Platou Markets AS Oslo x x ABG Sundal Collier Norge ASA Oslo x x Eksportkreditt Norge AS Oslo x x Trygve Hegnar Oslo x x Øystein Stray Spetalen Oslo x x Jens Ulltveit-Moe Oslo x x OsloTech / StartupLab Oslo x x Torger Reve Oslo x x
21 IT 20 Many stakeholders in the IT industry would be expected to have a great interest in this project. Most players will consider international marketing of Oslo as a positive opportunity for attracting qualified labour, increas R&D activities and investments. Stakeholders that should be mobilized as active partners and supporters include: Interest groups: ICT Norway, Abelia and Virke serves as unions for most of the IT players in different segments; they are well organised with prominent and visible leaders who, to a large extent, set the sector agenda. The need for international profiling primarily relates to a need for attracting competent labour, but also for profiling products and services from Norwegian IT organizations. Over the last few years, big campaigns have been initiated to profile Norwegian IT, such as the efforts for marketing Norwegian data processing centres towards leading global IT players who need large storage facilities with stable storage services and affordable, sustainable energy sources. Research and development businesses within IT and software: Companies that manage research and development in the region, with large market shares (Telenor, Evry, Visma, Opera, Microsoft Search) or ambitions for global growth (Agresso Unit4, Software Innovation). Companies operating in areas covering growing areas and disruptive new techologies (big data, online payment, biometrics and Internet of Everything) are also included in this segment. Consultancy community: Organisations with vast competence in important growth areas (such as modernisation of the public sector), that set the tone in the sector (Accenture, CapGemini, IBM, Steria) and recruit many graduates each year. Leading Norwegian companies with a Nordic footprint have also been included here. Start-up firms in the early phase: Coordinated through StartUpLab (Oslo Science Park) and MESH. The academic community: Norwegians are a minority among the doctorates at the Department of Informatics at UiO. While the academic environment is covered in another section, Morten Dæhlen of UiO is included in this segment.
22 Sektor Bransjeorganisasjon Virksomhet Kommune (plassering av Formål med kontakt Form på primær oppfølging hovedvirksomhet) Informere Motivere Mobilisere Individuelt gruppe Annet IKT Norge Oslo x x Abelia Oslo x x Virke, kunnskap og teknologi Oslo x x Inkubatorer og møtesteder MESH Oslo x x Inkubator Forskningsparken - StartUpLab Oslo x x Møtested Teknologihuset Oslo x x Community JavaZone Oslo x x Teknologiselskap Telenor Fornebu x IKT Norge Teknologiselskap Evry Fornebu x IKT Norge Teknologiselskap Cisco Systems Norge Lysaker x IKT Norge Teknologiselskap Microsoft Norge Lysaker x IKT Norge Internet & mobile services Schibsted CM Oslo x x Rådgivning Accenture Fornebu x Virke, kunnskap og teknologi Rådgivning CapGemini Oslo x Virke, kunnskap og teknologi Rådgivning Steria Oslo x Virke, kunnskap og teknologi Teknologi og rådgivning IBM Trollåsen Virke, kunnskap og teknologi Programvareselskap Visma Oslo x IKT Norge Programvareselskap Opera Oslo x IKT Norge Programvareselskap Simula Fornebu x Programvareselskap Csam Health Oslo x Programvareselskap Amesto Oslo x x Consulting Making Waves Oslo x Consulting Bouvet Oslo x Utdanning Universitetet i Oslo Oslo x x
23 Knowledge based services 22 Several stakeholders in knowledge based services would have joint interests with the project, either to raise more international interest for the region as an arena for trade, or to attract world leading competence within a specific sector. Associations: Tekna, Abelia and Virke should be informed or involved. Law firms: The need for international profiling is primarily related to the need for attracting international clients, and the competition is tough internally between the various law firms. We recommend involving the Norwegian Bar Association, which has gained trust and impact among its members. Several of the leading law firms already have international companies on their client lists and work in some way or another to achieve more visibility and profiling outside of Norway. Management consulting: Most management consulting companies want international profiling to attract the best associates, and to market themselves as market leaders within their core segment and disciplines. There is no association for these companies, but the number of stakeholders that need to be prioritized is limited to Boston Consulting Group, McKinsey, Bain & Co, and Quartz & Co. Shipbrokers: RS Platou, Fearnleys and Inge Steensland. All of these are advisory companies that are global leaders within ship-broking, and that would see many advantages of international profiling. Communications and marketing: As the communications and marketing sector consists of many and relatively small companies, the respective associations have been identified as the key stakeholders within this segment (Kreativt Forum, KOMM and INMA).
24 Sektor Virksomhet Kommune (plassering av hovedvirksomhet) Formål med kontakt Form på primær oppfølging Informere Motivere Mobilisere Individuelt gruppe Annet Virke, kunnskap og teknologi Oslo x x Tekna Oslo x x Abelia Oslo x x Advokatforeningen Oslo x x Thommessen Oslo x Advokatforeningen Kunnskapsbasert Wikborg, Rein & co Oslo x Advokatforeningen tjenesteyting BA-HR Oslo x Advokatforeningen Wiersholm Oslo x Advokatforeningen Schjødt Oslo x Advokatforeningen Boston Consulting Group Oslo x x McKinsey Oslo x x Bain & co Oslo x x Quartz+co Oslo x x RS Platou Oslo x x Fearnleys Oslo x x Inge Stensland Oslo x x Kreativt Forum Oslo x x KOMM Oslo x x INMA Oslo x x
25 Real estate and construction 24 This sector is one of the country's largest industries and most of the value creation is headed by companies based in Oslo. The entire value chain in real estate and construction includes stakeholders within the production of building materials, building material retail stores, architects and consulting engineers, building and construction services, machine rentals, real estate, and real estate management. The most prominent sections of the industry are construction services and real estate. In addition to this, some of the consulting engineers and architects should be involved in the project. Construction: Many of the country's largest entrepreneurs and real estate companies are based in Oslo but have their main operations outside of the capital. These stakeholders will seek international profiling of projects and signature buildings, especially for innovative, sustainable solutions. Real estate: These stakeholders will probably already know about the project, but without any further wish for broad participation or involvement. For instance, Selvaag uses Tjuvholmen actively in their international profiling. Consulting engineers: Certain communities want broader international profiling of projects in areas where Norway is at the forefront of developments. Architects: Several Norwegian architects are considered to be in the international elite as regards signature buildings. Several architects can also be considered, while Snøhetta, MAD Architects, NORDIC and LPO have been included in this overview.
26 Sektor Eiendom, Bygg og anlegg Virksomhet Kommune (plassering av Formål med kontakt Form på primær oppfølging hovedvirksomhet) Informere Motivere Mobilisere Individuelt gruppe Annet MIPIM, Oslo Metropolitan Area Oslo x x Norske Eiendom Oslo x x Byggenæringens Landsforening (BNL) Oslo x x Rådgivende Ingeniørers Forening (RIF) Oslo x x Veidekke Entreprenør Oslo x BNL Skanska Oslo x BNL NCC Construction Oslo x BNL AF Gruppen Oslo x BNL Norconsult Sandvika x RIF Cowi Oslo x RIF Asplan VIAK Sandvika x RIF Multiconsult Oslo x RIF OBOS Oslo x OMA Entra Oslo x OMA ROM Eiendom Oslo x OMA Selvaag Oslo x OMA NPRO (Norwegian Property) Oslo x Norsk Eiendom Aspelin Ramm Oslo x OMA HAV Eiendom Oslo x OMA Oslo S Utvikling Oslo x OMA Søylen Eiendom Oslo x KLP Eiendom Oslo x Norsk Eiendom Steen & Strøm Oslo x OMA Tjuvholmen Utvikling Oslo x Eierne Olav Thon Oslo x Snøhetta Oslo x MAD Architects Oslo x Nordic Oslo x LPO Oslo x x x x x
27 Tourism 26 We have defined tourism as accommodation, dining and transport, as well as relevant organisations. There are many cultural and entertainment companies that could be included in the tourism category, but in our analysis, these are defined under culture or other associated industries. The tourism mapping consists of a few large companies/enterprises, and many small companies. The smaller companies are largely oriented towards their own daily operations, do not tend to participate in the public sphere, and let organisations such as NHO and Virke speak on their behalf in issues related to politics and industry. We recommend to engage closely with these organisations, where potentially conflicting interests of a large number of companies are balanced and handled. The organisations should be mobilised to engage their members in the project, especially to secure that the views and interests of smaller companies outside of Oslo are well represented. Correspondingly, already existing regional cooperations for tourist profiling should be utilised. The destination perspective will be the key element for the tourism companies in this project - these companies do not look abroad for capital or specific competence. The first and possibly most important question from the tourism industry would be whether the finances connected to this project are in addition to the public funds that promotional bodies (Innovation Norway and Visit Oslo) receive, or if this would constitute a reallocation of funds. If these are additional funds, commercial businesses would be positive or neutral. The promotional bodies will also be concerned with the process leading up to a united profile, and how their voice, experience and competence would be included. The list also includes individual KOLs within the sector, as well as companies/bodies that contribute significantly to local or even national identity within the region.