freydís jóna freysteinsdóttir 2 Characteristics of families who are repeatedly reported to child protection services in Iceland

Størrelse: px
Begynne med side:

Download "freydís jóna freysteinsdóttir 2 Characteristics of families who are repeatedly reported to child protection services in Iceland"

Transkript

1 LEDER Detta nummer av Nordisk Socialt Arbeid inleds med två artiklar som båda fokuserar på barn och deras villkor. Freydís Jóna Freysteinsdóttir diskuterar i sitt bidrag vikten av att tidigt kunna identifiera familjer i vilka barnmisshandel förekommer och sådana riskfaktorer som om de elimineras kan få stopp på dessa missförhållanden. Mia Hakovirta och Mari Broberg uppmärksammar därefter de barn vars föräldrar inte finns närvarande i deras vardag och sådana förhållanden som ökar möjligheten till en god kontakt i lägen där barn och föräldrar inte bor tillsammans. Huruvida kombinationen könsmakt och profession inom psykiatrin får som konsekvens att manliga arbetssökande tenderar utestängas problematiseras av Rita Sommerseth medan Karin Haarberg Aas diskuterar möjligheter att i utbildningssystemet stärka utvecklingen av vad hon benämner professionell relationskompetens. Hon konstaterar att utbildningssystemen i Norden lägger stor vikt på undervisning och träning i kompetenshöjande syfte men att såväl studerande som nyligen utexaminerade uppger sig ha svårigheter att knyta samman praktik och teori inom detta område. Heidi Gautuns artikel slutligen handlar om samspelet mellan välfärdsstat och individ. Hon driver tesen att en ökad förståelse av detta samband kräver hänsyn till sådana kulturella sammanhang som ofta förbises i europeisk idétradition. Numret avslutas som vanligt med anmeldelser och bokomtaler. INNHOLD freydís jóna freysteinsdóttir 2 Characteristics of families who are repeatedly reported to child protection services in Iceland mia hakovirta & mari broberg 19 Parenting from a Distance: Factors Connected to the Contact between Children and a Non-resident Parent rita sommerseth 34 Menn i psykisk helsearbeid utstøtes de som har sosialfaglig bakgrunn? karin haarberg aas 45 Utvikling av relasjonskompetanse. Det er vanskelig å sette ord på det, men det ligger liksom i bakhodet ett eller annet sted heidi gautun Velferdsstatens forming av individers livsløp 56 anmeldelser 64 bokomtaler 80 kalender 87 Lena Dahlgren Huvudredaktör för Nordisk Socialt Arbeid

2 REFEREEBEDØMT Antaget til publicering januar 2007 Freydís Jóna Freysteinsdóttir Characteristics of families who are repeatedly reported to child protection services in Iceland FREYDÍS JÓNA FREYSTEINSDÓTTIR professor in Social Work at the University of Iceland It is important to identify families who are at risk of repeatedly maltreating their children early in the process in order to develop specific ways to help these families stop maltreating their children or to work on termination of parental rights. Thus, identifying factors that contribute to repeated child maltreatment is essential. The focus of this study was to investigate risk factors for repeated maltreatment, specifically neglect, of children in Iceland. Keywords: repeated child maltreatment child neglect risk factors ecological model child protection services NORDISK SOSIALT ARBEID NR VOL 7 SIDE Universitetsforlaget 2-18.is

3 characteristics of families who are repeatedly reported to child protection services in iceland Incidence of child maltreatment During 1999, at the time the study was conducted, a total of 1,067 cases of child maltreatment (children who had been abused, neglected or engaged in risk behavior) were reported and required some kind of action by the child protection authorities in Iceland (Government Agency for Child Protection, 2000). The total number of children under 18 years of age in Iceland in 1999 was (Statistics Iceland, 2004). Thus the incidence rate was roughly 1.4%. Most of the reports (738) included children with risk behavior (not victims) or children s risk behavior, such as difficulties in school (such as school attendance) or child puts own health or maturity in danger (Government Agency for Child Protection, 2000). Even though these cases include children (mostly adolescents) with risk behavior, rather then as victims, their severe symptoms may suggest that many of them have had a history of difficulties in childhood, including maltreatment (Freydís Jóna Freysteinsdóttir, 2005), since some children develop risk behavior following maltreatment (Miller-Perrin & Perrin, 1999). Fewer reports included children as victims of maltreatment (329). Neglect was the most common form of maltreatment in Iceland in Child neglect can be defined as a failure to fulfill a child s basic needs (Miller-Perrin & Perrin, 1999) and has been divided into four main categories in Iceland; physical neglect, inadequate supervision, educational neglect and emotional neglect (Freydís Jóna Freysteinsdóttir, e.d.). Ofcourse, neglect has different forms depending on the age of children. For example, a three year old child left home alone is neglected (inadequate supervision). However, a 13 year old child left alone would not be considered neglected, unless it was home alone during a long period of time. Sixty-eight percent of the victims suffered from neglect in Iceland (Government Agency for Child Protection, 2000). In addition, roughly 15% of victims had parents with a recorded alcohol or drug abuse problem, which was a specific category of child maltreatment in Iceland (Government Agency for Child Protection, 2000). However, parental alcohol or drug abuse problem should be viewed as a risk factor for child maltreament. Ten percent of the victims suffered from sexual abuse, 4% from psychological/emotional abuse and 3% from physical abuse (Government Agency for Child Protection, 2000). The effects of child maltreatment Maltreated children are at risk of experiencing physical, cognitive, social and emotional problems (Miller-Perrin & Perrin, 1999) and are more likely to have mental health problems than other children (Turner, Finkelhor & Omrod, 2006). Results from a recent Icelandic study seems to support these findings (Halldór Guðmundsson, 2005). The potential negative effects of maltreatment on children can be divided into two broad categories, internalized and externalized behavior problems. Examples of internalized behavior problems are anxious behavior and withdrawal. Examples of.is

4 freydís jóna freysteinsdóttir externalized behavior problems are aggression and delinquent behavior (Markward, 1997; Saunders, 1994; Zielinski & Bradshaw, 2006). Externalized behavior problems are more common among boys, whereas internalized problems are more common in girls (Jouriles & Norwood, 1995). Symptoms such as anxiety and behavior problems that are frequent or prolonged often lead to the diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder (Finkelhor & Berliner, 1995). For example, excessive withdrawal may be a sign of depression and excessive delinquent behavior may lead to conduct disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Since the effects of maltreatment have been documented, it has become clear that repeated child maltreatment is more likely to lead to severe symptoms (Markward, 1997; Saunders, 1994). Severe behavior problems and excessive withdrawal may reflect a disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Thus, when the maltreatment is repeated, even after it has been reported and intervention has occurred, children may be more likely to develop disorders (Cicchetti & Lynch, 1995; Knutson, 1995). Because child maltreatment can have serious consequences, it is important to study repeated child maltreatment. The ecological model as a conceptual basis This study was based on the ecological framework of Belsky (1980), which was grounded on Bronfenbrenner s (1977) ecological model. Belsky s (1980) ecological model organized different risk factors by levels. The first level consists of individual factors (ontogenetic factors). The second level consists of the micro system, which is what takes place in the household. The third level includes a larger social system in which the family is embedded (exo system) and the fourth level includes cultural beliefs and values (macro system) that influence the micro system as well as the exo system. Child maltreatment is a phenomenon, which is likely to occur as the result of a complex interplay of different stress-producing factors (Belsky, 1980). For example, an eighteen year old single mother who takes drugs, rejects her infant who has been born prematurely, is disconnected from her family, is unemployed and lives in a society where it is socially acceptable to use physical punishment is at greater risk of maltreating her child than a twenty five year old married and employed middle-income woman who has a supportive husband as well as supportive relatives that live close by in a culture where it is not acceptable to use physical punishment. Several risk factors have been found at various levels of Belsky s (1980) ecological model related to parents (Berger, 2005; Cicchetti & Lynch, 1995; Sidebotham & Heron, 2006), and children (DePanfilis & Zuravin, 1999; Wu et al., 2004), as well as family factors (Belsky & Vondra, 1989; Berger, 2004; Coohey, 2006; Sidebotham & Heron, 2006), social factors (Connell-Carrick & Scannapieco, 2006, Freydís Jóna Freysteinsdóttir, 2005) and cultural factors (Belsky, 1980; Belsky & Vondra, 1989; Shor, 1998). The general research question in this study was: What risk factors at different eco-.is

5 characteristics of families who are repeatedly reported to child protection services in iceland logical levels are associated with repeated child maltreatment, specifically neglect, in Iceland. Method A case comparison design was used to compare two groups on a variety of factors at different ecological levels, which have been related to child maltreatment. Families where one incident of confirmed child maltreatment had taken place were compared with families where two or more confirmed child maltreatment incidents had taken place. All cases had at least one confirmed report of neglect as the first incident, so the main variable studied was neglect. Neglect was divided into the four main categories discussed above. Reported incidents of neglect varied ofcourse with different age of children. For example, a very young child left alone might be an example of inadequate supervision. However, a teenager wandering outside late at night because the parents have not set rules about when to come home, is inadequately supervised as well. Thus, all the cases fulfilled criteria for maltreatment and neglect in first incident using the four categories of neglect discussed above. The groups were compared on a variety of factors at different ecological levels to assess differences between them. In both groups, only cases with no prior registered incidents were included, which is a strength of this design. By studying clean cases, that is, cases with no prior incidents, it is possible to detect risk factors that increase the likelihood of further child maltreatment. The sampling frame included all case records of child maltreatment incidents reported to two social service agencies in Reykjavík (capital city of Iceland), from 1. January 1998 through 31. August 2000 and one social service agency in Hafnarfjörður, from 1. January 1998 through 31. December Hafnarfjörður is located within 10 miles of Reykjavík and can be considered as a part of the Reykjavík metropolitan area geographically. Families constituted the units of analysis in this study, rather than children. Cases were divided into two groups: 1) Single incident group (cases with one reported incident of neglect), 2) Repeated incidents group (cases with two or more reported maltreatment incidents, and neglect at the first incident). The following exclusion criteria were established, in order to increase the internal validity of the study. First, only cases with children as victims of neglect in the first incident were included in this study, although other types of maltreatment (physical, emotional abuse or sexual abuse) could have involved in repeated incidents. In all cases, neglect was the first incident and cases with other types of first incidents were excluded from this study because each type of maltreatment has specific characteristics and thus it can be problematic to combine all types in a single category when trying to understand repetition among neglecting families (Knutson, 1995). Second, as already mentioned, only cases with no known prior incidents (before 1. January 1998) were included in this study. Third, the study only included cases with families 5.is

6 freydís jóna freysteinsdóttir that lived within the city limits of Reykjavík on the one hand and Hafnarfjörður on the other hand when the first incident was reported and when the data were gathered. This factor is important, since the cases were followed for a specific time period and the families could otherwise have been reported for maltreatment in other jurisdictions. If it appeared that families had been living in different areas for many years they were excluded from this study, except for families where there was a strong reason to believe from case notes that the family had not been involved with child protection services (CPS) before. This exclusion, however, does limit the study to families that live a rather stable live in terms of residence. Fourth, foster families and adoptive families were excluded, to ensure that other factors, such as an earlier removal from a family, were not interfering with the factors studied. Thus, only families with the biological children of one or both parents were included in this study. Fifth, the target child was 16 years old or younger at the time of first incident. This requirement was made in order to allow time to follow cases for 18 months, with children still under 18 years of age at the end of the time period. Sixth, only cases that consisted of a parent as responsible for the maltreatment in one or more incidents were included. Content analysis was used as a method for translating information from the child protection worker s reports into quantitative data. Content analysis is an unobtrusive method (Rubin & Babbie, 1997) and can be defined as a systematic, replicable technique for compressing many words of text into fewer content categories based on explicit rules of coding (Stemler, 2001, p.1). Coding sheets were created that included various questions about the incident and the family. Coding guidelines were also used, including a coding system in a coding manual, to increase the reliability of the coding. A coding manual can be defined as a set of instructions or rules on how to systematically observe and record content from text (Neuman, 2000, p.294). The data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. Results Descriptive statistics: A total of 517 cases that fulfilled certain criteria were reviewed (in the child protection agencies in Reykjavík, a case is recorded for each child, however in the child protection agencies in Hafnarfjörður, a case is recorded for each family). Because of extensive exclusion criteria only a total of 77 cases (one case for each family) were coded in this study, 38 single incident cases and 39 repeated incidents cases. The police 1 was the most frequent reporter in single incident cases, followed by school/playschool/child care provider, neighbors and parents (usually without custody). However in most cases the reporter was other in repeated incident cases (unknown how the reporter is connected to the family, followed by the police, parents (usually without custody) and neighbors. 1 The police is required to report domestic violence to child protection services if a child is located at home when it occurs..is 6

7 characteristics of families who are repeatedly reported to child protection services in iceland Age of parents at first child maltreatment incident was similar in the repeated incidents group and in the single incident group. The mean age of mothers in the repeated incidents group was 33 and the mean age of mothers in the single incident group was 32. The mean age of fathers was 36 in both groups. The parents in this study had a total of 152 children. All of the children were living in the home at the time of the first incident except one, who lived with relatives. The range of number of children was from 1 to 5 total, but 1 to 4 living at home. Interestingly, parents in the repeated incident group had fewer children than the parents in the single incident group. More parents in the repeated incidents group had two children than in the single incident group, but fewer parents had three children in the repeated group than in the single incident group. Age of the children was similar in the groups and there was a similar number of boys and girls in the two groups. In more cases information was missing in the single incident group on where the child stays during the day. When missing information was excluded, a similar ratio of children in both groups were in playschool or day care and a similar ratio of children were staying at home. In 18 cases the child/ren had a different family type 18 months after the first incident (11 repeated incidents cases and 7 single incident cases). Fewer children in the 7.is

8 freydís jóna freysteinsdóttir repeated incidents group were living with both biological parents than in the single incident group. More children in the repeated incidents group were living in a single parent family, than in the single incident group. Finally, fewer children in the repeated incidents group were living in a step family compared to the single incident group. Thus, in fewer cases children were living with two parents in the repeated incidents group compared to the single incident group Type of housing did not differ for the two groups. However, more families had moved during the twelve months preceding the first incident in the repeated incidents group compared to the single incident group. For a higher proportion of single incident cases it was unknown if the family had moved or not. In most cases parents had only completed elementary school. However, education was unknown in a number of cases, especially for mother s former partners. More mothers had only completed elementary schooling in the repeated incidents group than in the single incident group. A similar number of mothers had completed upper secondary school and a similar number had completed a university degree in both groups. Education of fathers was similar in both groups (Table 1). Table 1. Education of parental figures. Single incident group Education Mother Father in home Father out of home Mother Repeated incident group Father in home Father out of home Elementary Trade school Upper secondary school University Unknown Total In the repeated incidents group, mothers were employed in over half of the cases, and were unemployed/disabled/homemaker in slightly fewer cases. In the single incident group, fewer than half of the mothers were employed, and a third of the mothers were unemployed/disabled/ homemaker. The fathers in the repeated incidents group were employed/students in over half of the cases and unemployed/disabled in 2 cases. In the single incident group, over half of fathers were employed and 5 were unemployed/disabled. Information about this important factor was missing in many cases (Table 2)..is 8

9 characteristics of families who are repeatedly reported to child protection services in iceland Table 2. Employment status of parents. Employment Single incident group Repeated incident group Father in Father out Father in Father out Mother home of home Mother home of home Self employed In paid job Parental leave Homemaker Student Disabled/Sick leave Unemployment Prison Unknown Total More than two thirds of the families were experiencing financial problems at the time of the first incident and nearly half had been on welfare at some time prior to the first incident. In the repeated incidents group, 27 (of 39 total) were experiencing financial problems and 21 had been on welfare. In the single incident group, 23 (of 38 total) were experiencing financial problems and 16 had been on welfare. A total of 153 child maltreatment incidents were reported for the groups. In 98 of the incidents, the mother was responsible for the maltreatment incident. In 46 of the cases the father was responsible for the incident, in 22 cases the mother s former partner was responsible, and finally in 4 cases someone else was responsible for the maltreatment incident. In thirteen cases children left the home or were removed by someone else, such as an extended family member (7) or by Child protection services (6). Lack of supervision/inadequate supervision was the leading type of child maltreatment. In 65 incidents the type was supervisory neglect. In 20 incidents, the children had been exposed to domestic violence. In a total of 35 incidents their basic needs had not been met, the type was unspecified, or the child had suffered from two or more types of maltreatment. Interestingly, general supervisory neglect (a failure to monitor a child) was the leading type of maltreatment in all incidents and was the only type involved in fifth and sixth incidents (Table 3). In all cases except three it was unknown when the reported maltreatment had started or it was believed it had started when reported or a few days earlier..is

10 freydís jóna freysteinsdóttir Table 3. Type of maltreatment. Type Denial of critical care - unspecified Inc. 1- single Inc. 1-rep Inc. 2 Inc. 3 Inc. 4 Inc. 5 Inc. 6 Total Physical neglect School neglect 1 1 Inadequate supervision Emotional maltreatment including domestic violence Physical abuse Sexual abuse More than one type Total The children in the groups were experiencing various problems that may be a result from the maltreatment they were receiving, since child maltreatment leads to various problems (Miller-Perrin & Perrin, 1999). School problems (for example, having low grades and/or frequently absent from school) were the problems most rated in both groups, followed by internal problems (such as depression or anxiety). However, since inter-rater reliability was poor for internal problems, that variable was not included in the analysis. A few children in the repeated incidents group had harmed other children sexually, compared to none in the single incident group. However, other problems were similar between the groups (Figure 2)..is 0

11 characteristics of families who are repeatedly reported to child protection services in iceland Bivariate statistics The demographic variables analyzed in this study, were family type, family size, age of parents at first reported child maltreatment incident, the education level and employment status of parents, type of housing and financial status. Ecological variables were also analyzed, which were parental problems, child vulnerabilities, family dynamics and social support deficits. It should be noted that some variables can fit into different categories, for example, financial status can be viewed as a demographic variable and a social support deficit (lack of adequate income). However, in this study, only informal social support was included in the social support variables. Finally, parental cooperation and types of services the families were provided were analyzed. A significance level of.10 was chosen as criteria, because a traditional significance level of.05 often fails to identify important variables when the sample is small, which is the case in this study (Hosmer & Lemeshow, 1989). Furthermore, when a sample size is small, the power to detect relation is week (Hays, 1994). Three demographic variables were significantly related to the dependent variable. The families in the repeated incidents group were more likely to include a single parent and to have moved within the last 12 months. In addition, the mother figures in the repeated incidents group had a lower education level than mothers in the single incident group. Individual factors: Parental problems and child vulnerabilities The mothers in the repeated incidents group had higher frequency of alcohol problems, depression and other mental illness. Furthermore, higher number of mothers in the repeated incidents group had mental deficiency than mothers in the single incident group. Finally, more mothers in the repeated incidents group had been maltreated in their own childhood than in the single incident group (Table 4). An index was created for problems related to the mother (one variable that includes the sum of all mother figure problems) and for all problems related to the father (one variable that includes the sum of all father figure problems). The mothers in the repeated incidents group were experiencing a significantly higher number of problems than the mothers in the single incident group. The fathers in the repeated incidents group had been maltreated in their own childhood and moved in or out of the household more often than fathers in the single incident group. Other problems related to fathers were not significant. There was a significant difference between the groups on two child vulnerability variables out of nine. More families in the repeated incidents group had a child with a mental deficiency and/or a child who was noncompliant than in the single incident group. However, there was no significant difference between the groups on number of child vulnerabilities..is

12 freydís jóna freysteinsdóttir Table 4. The Bivariate relation between the parental risk factors and repeated child maltreatment Risk factors: Parental risk factors: Mother figure problems: Number Single incident Repeated incidents p value Alcohol abuse*** Other drug problems Depression*** Other mental health problems**** Mental deficiency** Chronic physical illness Maltreated in own childhood** Has committed crimes Has moved in or out of the household the last 12 months *p<.10. ** p<.05. *** p<.01.**** p<.001. Family and social factors: Family dynamics and social support Coercive parenting or discipline problems were more common in the repeated incidents group than in the single incident group, as well as conflict between parental figures (Table 5). Thus, the families in the repeated incidents group were experiencing significantly more problems in family dynamics than the single incident group. A similar number of families received social support from extended families, friends and groups in the repeated incidents group and in the single incident group. The repeated incidents group received social support from community/neighbors in more cases than the single incident group. The social support deficit index (a variable that includes the sum of all social support deficits variables) was not significant in the bivariate statistics. Table 5. The Bivariate relation between family dynamics and repeated child maltreatment Family dynamics: Coercion pattern/discipline problem between a parent and a child*** Conflict in the parental relationship** *p<.10. ** p<.05. *** p<.01.**** p<.001..is

13 characteristics of families who are repeatedly reported to child protection services in iceland Parental cooperation and services Majority of mothers were available for all interviews with the child protection worker at the child protection services at the agreed upon times. However, less than half of fathers were available for all interviews at the agreed upon times. In only two cases fathers not living at home were available for any interview. Very few parents minimized other s abusive/neglecting behavior. Rather few parents admitted that s/he was responsible for the maltreatment. It seemed that they had difficulties facing that they had done something wrong. However, majority of parents in both groups were willing to do something so that the maltreatment would not recur. No difference was found between the groups on any of the parental non-cooperation variables or the parental non-cooperation indices. More parents were offered/referred to services in the repeated incidences group than the single incident group. When offered services, more parents in the repeated incidents group than in the single incident group accepted the services. Of those who did not accept services, majority of mothers and half of fathers gave a valid explanation according to the child protection worker for not accepting services, such as that they had already seeked a support of some kind. Interestingly, only in two cases (single) were victims referred to a service because of domestic violence. In addition, in 8 cases (2 single, 6 repeated) it was recorded that the mothers had ever used a domestic violence service. All families were seen for at least one interview with a child protection worker and received counseling on child upbringing and child care. More families in the repeated incidents group than the single incident group received some other types of services: family adviser, supportive family, child/day care, child placed at a farm during summer and therapy/treatment for parents. The groups received other types of services in similar numbers, such as youth adviser and counseling or therapy for the child (Table 6). Fewer cases in the single incident group were submitted to the child protection committee than in the repeated incident group. Cases are introduced to or submitted to the child protection committee, when they are perceived as serious and/or the parents and/or a child that is 15 to 17 years old do not cooperate with the child protection services. Three other types of mandated services were given to families in the repeated incidents group but not the single incident group. However, only two mandated services (services not approved by parents) were significant: case submitted to child protection committee and child removed from home. The social service index (a variable that includes the sum of all social service variables) was significantly related to repeated child maltreatment in the bivariate statistics..is

14 freydís jóna freysteinsdóttir Table 6. The Bivariate relation between repeated child maltreatment and social services Social services Supportive services Family adviser*** Youth adviser Supportive family* Child receives counseling or therapy Childcare (day care) provided*** Housing provided (or waiting list) Child placed on a farm during summer* Parent(s) receive therapy or treatment*** Child receives short term treatment Child receives long term treatment Child temporal foster care Child permanent foster care *p<.10. ** p<.05. *** p<.01.**** p<.001. Multivariate statistics Three demographic variables were selected to be entered into a logistic regression model, since they were significantly related to the dependent variable at a.10 level: family type (single parent vs. two parent families), education level of mother figure and number of times the family has moved the last 12 months. When the three variables were entered simultaneously into the equation at step one, family type and number of times the family has moved the last 12 months were not significant and were not in the final model. Indices were created for mother figure problems, father figure problems, child vulnerabilities, family dynamics, social support deficits, mother figure non-cooperation, father figure non-cooperation and social services. At step two, significant risk indices were entered into the equation, first mother figure problems and then family dynamics. Child vulnerabilities, father figure problems and social deficits were not significant and therefore not in the final model. At step three, services were entered into the model, since that index was significant. However, when that index was entered into the model, it was not significant and therefore not in the final model. Mother non-cooperation and father non-cooperation were not entered into the model since these indices were not significant. As can be seen in Table 7, the final model explains a total of.443 of the variance in the dependent variable: repeated child maltreatment. In addition, the final model correctly classifies 71.8% of repeated incidents cases and 76.3% of single incident cases or a total of 74% (Table 8). The log likelihood was and the model s chi-square was is

15 characteristics of families who are repeatedly reported to child protection services in iceland Table 7. Hierarchical stepwise logistic regression (N=77) β Chi Square p Value Odds Ratio R 2 Demographics:.064 Education of mother Risk factors:.443 Mother figure s problems Family dynamics Table 8. Comparison of actual maltreatment incidents with prediction of maltreatment Predicted Single incident Predicted Repeated incidents Total Single incident Repeated incidents Sensitivity 71.8 % Specificity 76.3 % False positive rate 23.8 % False negative rate 28.2 % Positive predictive value 74.0 % Discussion In this study, a strong relation was found between maternal problems at the individual level and conflict in the parental relationship at the family level on one hand and repeated child maltreatment on the other. Thus, evaluation of problems related to the mother and implementation of services that help mothers deal with their personal problems, such as alcoholism and depression, seem to be very important. In addition, an evaluation of the mother s relationship with her husband or partner is important as well, in cases where the mother has one. These findings also show that it is important to support young people in receiving education, especially mothers, since mothers who had low education level were significantly more likely to repeatedly maltreat their children than mothers with higher education level. It is also important to support single parents, since they seem to be more likely to repeat maltreatment than families that include two parents, especially when they suffer from stress, at different levels such as unemployment or depression. Furthermore, stable housing seems to be an important factor, since children in families who had moved within the last 12 months before first incident were more likely to be repeatedly maltreated. Finally, at the social level, poverty seems to be a major risk factor for child maltreatment since two thirds of both groups had financial problems and half of both groups was or had been on welfare. A recent study showed that the.is

16 freydís jóna freysteinsdóttir poverty rate in Iceland is higher than in the other Nordic countries and that many have to deny themselves of things that most people think of as usual, such as buying birthday presents and going to the cinema (Sigríður Jónsdóttir, 2002). Ofcourse it is important to keep in mind that risk factors increase the likelihood of child maltreatment. Not all parents who experience risk factors maltreat their children, but they are more likely to do so. The families in the repeated incidents group were receiving more support from neighbors and more services than families in the single incident group. They were ofcourse facing more risk factors as well and therefore in more need of support and services. Thus, it seems that child protection workers are directing services to the families that are in more need of services. These results are consistent with the results of two Norwegian studies, showing relation between risk factors and lack of support on one hand and need for services on the other (Andenæs, 2004; Aamodt, Jörgensen & Aamodt, 2002). However, this finding is not consistent with other studies (DePanfilis & Zuravin, 1999). It might be speculated that informal social support is not as important in Iceland as in the U.S., because citizens in Iceland might receive more informal social support than U.S. citizens (Stefán Ólafsson, 1999). It is important to note that since this study was based on child protection records, it is limited by what was written in the records. The detail and quality of the record keeping seemed to vary with the child protection workers involved. Even basic information, such as education level and employment status was missing or difficult to find in some cases, since these variables were not recorded consistently. This is consistent with findings of other studies conducted in Iceland using the method of content analysis of child protection records (Guðrún Kristinsdóttir, 1991; Sigrún Júlíusdóttir, 2002). Furthermore, a lack of father involvement can be seen in this study, since less than half of them were available for interviews compared to majority of mothers. This is consistent with a finding from an earlier Icelandic study, showing a lack of father s involvement in the child protection services (Guðrún Kristinsdóttir, 1991). However, in this study, it is not clear if lack of involvement is due to a lack of interest of fathers themselves or a failure of child protection services to include them or both. By assessing risk factors, it is possible to predict whether a child is likely to be maltreated in the future (Pecora, 1991). This study is important as a first study on repeated child maltreatment in Iceland. Some clear predictors were isolated, especially problems related to the mother and problems in family dynamics. The importance of further study to assess cross-cultural differences and to isolate predictive factors for repeated maltreatment in Iceland and other Nordic countries more definitely is important..is

17 characteristics of families who are repeatedly reported to child protection services in iceland References Aamodt, Jörgensen B. & Aamodt A. (2002). Enslige mødre familier med store psykososiale belastninger. Nordisk Socialt Arbeid, 22 (4), Andenæs, A. (2004). Hvorfor ser vi ikke fattigdommen? Fra en undersøkelse om barn som blir plassert utenfor hjemmet. Nordisk Socialt Arbeid, 22 (1), American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders; DSM IV (4th ed). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association. Belsky, J. (1980). Child maltreatment: An ecological integration. American Psychologist, 35 (4), Belsky, J. & Vondra, J. (1989). Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child Maltreatment: Theory and Research on the Causes and Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect (pp ). New York: Cambridge University Press. Berger, L.M: (2004). Income, family structure, and child maltreatment risk. Children and Youth Services Review, 26 (8), Berger, L.M. (2005). Income, family strucutre, and child maltreatment risk. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29 (2), Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward and experimental ecology of human development. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29, Connell-Carrick, K. & Scannapieco, M. (2006). Ecological correlates of neglect in infants and toddlers. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21 (3), Cicchetti, D. & Lynch, M. (1995). Failures in the expectable environment and their impact on individual development: The case of child maltreatment. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental Psychopathology (Vol. 2, pp ). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Coohey, C. (2006). Physically abusive fathers and risk assessment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30 (5), DePanfilis, D. & Zuravin, S.J. (1999). Predicting child maltreatment recurrences during treatment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23 (8), Finkelhor, D. & Berliner, L. (1995). Research on the treatment of sexually abused children: A review and recommendations. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34 (11), Freydís Jóna Freysteinsdóttir (2005). Risk Factors for Repeated Child Maltreatment: An Ecological Approach. Reykjavík: University of Iceland Press. Freydís Jóna Freysteindóttir. (e.d.). Definitions and category system in Child Protection [Skilgreiningar-og flokkunarkerfi í barnaverndarmálum]. Reykjavík: Government Agency for Child Protection [Barnaverndarstofa]. Government Agency for Child Protection [Barnaverndarstofa]. (2000). Skýrsla um starfssemi Barnaverndarstofu árin 1995 till 1999 og barnaverndarnefnda á Íslandi árin [Icelandic Welfare Council: A report on the Council s Operation from 1995 to 1999 and child protection committees in Iceland from 1996 to 1999]. Reykjavík: Government Agency for Child Protection [Barnaverndarstofa]. Guðrún Kristinsdóttir. (1991). Child Welfare and Professionalization. Umeå: Umeå Universitets Tryckeri. Hays, W.L. (1994). Statistics (5 th ed.). Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Hosmer, D.W. & Lemeshow, S. (1989). Applied Logistic Regression. New York: A Wiley-Interscience Publication. Jouriles, E.N. & Norwood, W.D. (1995). Physical aggression toward boys and girls in families characterized by the battering of women. Journal of Family Psychology, 9 (1), Knutson, J. F. (1995). Psychological characteristics of maltreated children: Putative risk factors and consequences. Annual Review of Psychology, 46, Markward, M. J. (1997). The impact of domestic violence on children. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 1, Miller-Perrin, C.L. and Perrin, R.D. (1999). Child Maltreatment: An Introduction. London: SAGE Publications. Neuman, W. L. (2000). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Pecora, P.J. (1991). Investigating allegations of child maltreatment: The strength and limitations of current risk assessment systems. Child and Youth Services, 15 (2), Rubin, A. and Babbie, E. (1997). Research Methods for Social Work (3rd ed.). Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Saunders, D. G. (1994). Child custody decisions in families experiencing woman abuse. Social Work, 39 (17), is

18 freydís jóna freysteinsdóttir.is Shor, R. (1998). The significance of religion in advancing a culturally sensitive approach towards child maltreatment. Families in society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 79 (4), Sidebotham, P. & Heron, J. (2006). Child maltreament in the children of the nineties : A cohort study of risk factors. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30 (5), Sigriður Jónsdóttir. (2002). The life situation of long-term recipients of social assistance. Nordisk Socialt Arbejde, 22 (3), Sigrún Júlíusdóttir. (2002). Ævintýri á fjöllum: Rannsókn á reynslu unglinga af starfi með Hálendishópnum á tímabilinu Reykjavík: Háskólaútgáfan. Statistics Iceland [Hagstofa Íslands]. (2000). Landshagir: Statistical Yearbook of Iceland Reykjavík: Statistics Iceland [Hagstofa Íslands]. Stefán Ólafsson. (1999). [Íslenska leiðin Almannatryggingar og velferð í fjölþjóðlegum samanburði. Reykjavík: Tryggingastofnun ríkisins. Stemler, S. (2001). An overview of content analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, [on line], 7(17). Available: getvn.asp?v=7&n=17. Turner, H.A., Finkelhor, D. & Omrod, R. (2006). The effects of lifetime victimization on the mental health of children and adolescents. Social Science & Medicine, 62 (1), Zielinski, D.S. & Bradshaw, C.P. (2006). Ecological influences on the sequelae of child maltreatment: A review of the literature. Child Maltreatment, 11 (1), Wu, S.S., Ma, C., Carter, R.L., Ariet, M., Feaver, E. A., Resnick, M. & Roth, J. (2004). Risk factors for infant maltreatment: A population-based study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28 (4), Summaries Characteristics of families who are repeatedly reported to the child protection services in Iceland The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for repeated child maltreatment. The method used in this study was content analysis. Seventy seven cases that had never been reported to the child protection services before were included in this study. Each case was followed for 18 months from the first reported incident. In all cases the first reported incident was neglect. A group of cases that was only reported once was compared with another group of cases that was reported repeatedly. Families in the repeated incidents group had more risk factors than families in the single incident group. Problems related to the mother and family dynamics were found to be more important in predicting repeated child maltreatment than problems related to fathers and child vulnerabilities. Sérkenni fjölskyldna sem endurtekið eru tilkynntar til barnaverndaryfirvalda á Íslandi Markmiðið með rannsókn þessari var að bera kennsl á áhættuþætti varðandi endutekna misbresti í uppeldi barna á Íslandi. Í rannsókninni voru skoðuð og innihaldsgreind 77 mál, sem ekki höfðu komið við sögu áður hjá barnaverndaryfirvöldum. Hverju máli var fylgt eftir í 18 mánuði frá fyrstu barnaverndartilkynningu. Í öllum tilfellum var um vanrækslu að ræða í fyrstu tilkynningu. Þau mál sem tilkynnt var um einu sinni voru borin saman við mál sem voru tilkynnt tvisvar eða oftar til barnaverndaryfirvalda. Fjölskyldur sem höfðu verið tilkynntar endurtekið upplifðu meiri áhættuþætti heldur en fjölskyldur sem höfðu verið tilkynntar einu sinni. Vandkvæði tengd mæðrum og fjölskylduvandkvæði spáðu fremur fyrir um endurtekinn misbrest í uppeldi barna heldur en vandamál tengd feðrum og veikleika hjá börnum. Toistuvasti lastensuojelupalveluille raportoitujen perheiden ominaispiirteitä Islannissa Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli identifioida lasten kaltoinkohtelun uusiutumiseen vaikuttavia riskitekijöitä. Tutkimuksen metodina oli sisällönanalyysi. Tutkimukseen valittiin 77 lastensuojelupalveluille ensimmäistä kertaa raportoitua tapausta, ja jokaista tapausta seurattiin 18 kuukauden ajan ensimmäisestä raportoidusta tapahtumasta lähtien. Jokaisessa tapauksessa ensimmäinen raportoitu tapahtuma oli laiminlyönti. Tutkimuksessa verrattiin vain kerran raportoituja tapauksia useasti raportoituihin tapauksiin. Tutkimuksessa havaittiin, että usein raportoiduilla perheillä oli enemmän riskitekijöitä kuin vain kerran raportoiduilla perheillä. Äitiin ja perhedynamiikkaan liittyvien ongelmien havaittiin olevan merkittävämpiä lapsiin kohdistuvan kaltoinkohtelun uusiutumisen ennustamisessa kuin isään ja lasten haavoittuvuuteen liittyvien ongelmien.

19 REFEREEBEDØMT Mia Hakovirta and Mari Broberg Antaget til publicering januar 2007 Parenting from a Distance: Factors Connected to the Contact between Children and a Non-resident Parent MIA HAKOVIRTA Ph.D. Research Fellow, Department of Social Policy, University of Turku, Finland. MARI BROBERG M.Ed. Researcher, Department of Education, University of Turku, Finland. MIA MARI A growing number of children are living in households with only one of their parents, usually the mother. Moreover, the adults living with the children are not always the children s biological parents. The changing nature of family life has meant that parenting roles, expectations and responsibilities are in transition. The responsibility for children is not based on the marriage and partnership but rather on the parental obligation towards the children (Maclean & Eekelaar 1997). Keywords: non-resident parent children lone parent families stepfamilies NORDISK SOSIALT ARBEID NR VOL 7 SIDE Universitetsforlaget.fi

20 mia hakovirta and mari broberg Interest in family structure and cross-household ties between parents and children are motivated by the observed effects of contact arrangements on children s economic and psychological well-being. Many studies indicate that the interest of children in the post-separation situation is generally best served when children can maintain continuing and frequent contact with the non-resident parent (Amato & Gilbreth 1999; Pryor & Rodgers 2001; Bauserman 2002; Dunn et al. 2004). The child s visiting right is therefore an important tool for improving the well-being of those children whose parents are not living together. In this article we analyse the children s contact with the non-resident parent. We focus on the families in which the child has undergone the parental separation, either divorce or breakdown of consensual union, or the biological parents have never lived together. The article studies how the background of the family, the current family situation, the relationship with biological parents and the child s relationship with the non-resident parent are connected to the contacts between the child and the nonresident parent. The information on the functioning child-parent contact after parental separation can help to improve family policy and social work practices which are aimed at supporting parents and children after separation. Sharing the responsibility of children: the Finnish context In Finland, as in all Nordic countries, the number of lone parent families and stepfamilies has increased. At the beginning of this millennium, in Finland, of all families with children 19 % were lone parent families and 8 % stepfamilies (Statistics Finland 2002). This means that a quarter of Finnish children live apart from one of their biological parents (Kartovaara & Sauli 2001). In Sweden and Norway, 21 % of all working-age parents with dependent children were lone parents in 2001 (Bradshaw & Finch 2002). In Sweden, four out of ten children live at least part of their childhood in a lone parent family (Gähler 2001), and nearly one out of ten children live in a stepfamily (Statistics Sweden 2006). In the Nordic countries, policy making has emphasised biological parenthood and the right of the child to parental support. This idea has shaped the laws on child custody after parental separation in all Nordic countries. The aim is to give high priority to supporting the contact between the child and the non-resident parent after parental separation, and the legal provisions that regulate the visitation rights are congruent with each other in all Nordic countries. (Corden 1999; Bergman & Hobson 2002.) In Finland, the parental responsibility is enacted in two laws. The Child s Custody and Right to Access Act reflects the views that the sharing of parental responsibility should be encouraged and that the child has a right to meet both parents after separation. According to the Act, it is in the best interest of children to have contact with their biological parents, and joint legal custody is also seen as an opportunity to encourage.fi 0

Eiendomsverdi. The housing market Update September 2013

Eiendomsverdi. The housing market Update September 2013 Eiendomsverdi The housing market Update September 2013 Executive summary September is usually a weak month but this was the weakest since 2008. Prices fell by 1.4 percent Volumes were slightly lower than

Detaljer

Passasjerer med psykiske lidelser Hvem kan fly? Grunnprinsipper ved behandling av flyfobi

Passasjerer med psykiske lidelser Hvem kan fly? Grunnprinsipper ved behandling av flyfobi Passasjerer med psykiske lidelser Hvem kan fly? Grunnprinsipper ved behandling av flyfobi Øivind Ekeberg 5.september 2008 Akuttmedisinsk avdeling, Ullevål universitetssykehus Avdeling for atferdsfag, Universitetet

Detaljer

Contingent Liabilities in Norwegian Local Government Accounting. Redress Programs Relating to Institutional Child Abuse

Contingent Liabilities in Norwegian Local Government Accounting. Redress Programs Relating to Institutional Child Abuse Contingent Liabilities in Norwegian Local Government Accounting Redress Programs Relating to Institutional Child Abuse telemarksforsking.no Telemarksforsking What is Redress Programs Relating to Institutional

Detaljer

Assessing second language skills - a challenge for teachers Case studies from three Norwegian primary schools

Assessing second language skills - a challenge for teachers Case studies from three Norwegian primary schools Assessing second language skills - a challenge for teachers Case studies from three Norwegian primary schools The Visions Conference 2011 UiO 18 20 May 2011 Kirsten Palm Oslo University College Else Ryen

Detaljer

Utvikling av voksnes ferdigheter for optimal realisering av arbeidskraft (SkillsREAL)

Utvikling av voksnes ferdigheter for optimal realisering av arbeidskraft (SkillsREAL) Utvikling av voksnes ferdigheter for optimal realisering av arbeidskraft (SkillsREAL) Utvikling av voksnes ferdigheter for optimal realisering av arbeidskraft Tarja Tikkanen Hva betyr PIAAC-resultatene

Detaljer

04.11.2014. Ph.d-utdanningen. Harmonisering av krav i Norden

04.11.2014. Ph.d-utdanningen. Harmonisering av krav i Norden Ph.d-utdanningen Harmonisering av krav i Norden 2 1 Nasjonalt forskningsdekanmøte i Tromsø, oktober 2014 Nordic Medical Research Councils (NOS-M), november 2014 Prodekanmøte våren 2015 Dekanmøte våren

Detaljer

Dialogkveld 03. mars 2016. Mobbing i barnehagen

Dialogkveld 03. mars 2016. Mobbing i barnehagen Dialogkveld 03. mars 2016 Mobbing i barnehagen Discussion evening March 3rd 2016 Bullying at kindergarten Mobbing i barnehagen Kan vi si at det eksisterer mobbing i barnehagen? Er barnehagebarn i stand

Detaljer

STILLAS - STANDARD FORSLAG FRA SEF TIL NY STILLAS - STANDARD

STILLAS - STANDARD FORSLAG FRA SEF TIL NY STILLAS - STANDARD FORSLAG FRA SEF TIL NY STILLAS - STANDARD 1 Bakgrunnen for dette initiativet fra SEF, er ønsket om å gjøre arbeid i høyden tryggere / sikrere. Både for stillasmontører og brukere av stillaser. 2 Reviderte

Detaljer

Baltic Sea Region CCS Forum. Nordic energy cooperation perspectives

Baltic Sea Region CCS Forum. Nordic energy cooperation perspectives Norsk mal: Startside Baltic Sea Region CCS Forum. Nordic energy cooperation perspectives Johan Vetlesen. Senior Energy Committe of the Nordic Council of Ministers 22-23. april 2015 Nordic Council of Ministers.

Detaljer

Kritisk lesning og skriving To sider av samme sak? Geir Jacobsen. Institutt for samfunnsmedisin. Kritisk lesning. Med en glidende overgang vil denne

Kritisk lesning og skriving To sider av samme sak? Geir Jacobsen. Institutt for samfunnsmedisin. Kritisk lesning. Med en glidende overgang vil denne og skriving To sider av samme sak? Geir Jacobsen Institutt for samfunnsmedisin Med en glidende overgang vil denne presentasjonen først handle om av fagartikler I engelsk litteratur brukes også begrepene

Detaljer

Medisinsk statistikk, KLH3004 Dmf, NTNU 2009. Styrke- og utvalgsberegning

Medisinsk statistikk, KLH3004 Dmf, NTNU 2009. Styrke- og utvalgsberegning Styrke- og utvalgsberegning Geir Jacobsen, ISM Sample size and Power calculations The essential question in any trial/analysis: How many patients/persons/observations do I need? Sample size (an example)

Detaljer

Stipend fra Jubileumsfondet skoleåret 2002-2003

Stipend fra Jubileumsfondet skoleåret 2002-2003 Til skolen Rundskriv S 09-2002 Oslo, 15. februar 2002 Stipend fra Jubileumsfondet skoleåret 2002-2003 For nærmere omtale av H.M. Kong Olav V s Jubileumsfond viser vi til NKF-handboka kap. 12.3.4. Fondet

Detaljer

Nærings-PhD i Aker Solutions

Nærings-PhD i Aker Solutions part of Aker Motivasjon og erfaringer Kristin M. Berntsen/Soffi Westin/Maung K. Sein 09.12.2011 2011 Aker Solutions Motivasjon for Aker Solutions Forutsetning Vilje fra bedrift og se nytteverdien av forskning.

Detaljer

KROPPEN LEDER STRØM. Sett en finger på hvert av kontaktpunktene på modellen. Da får du et lydsignal.

KROPPEN LEDER STRØM. Sett en finger på hvert av kontaktpunktene på modellen. Da får du et lydsignal. KROPPEN LEDER STRØM Sett en finger på hvert av kontaktpunktene på modellen. Da får du et lydsignal. Hva forteller dette signalet? Gå flere sammen. Ta hverandre i hendene, og la de to ytterste personene

Detaljer

DecisionMaker Frequent error codes (valid from version 7.x and up)

DecisionMaker Frequent error codes (valid from version 7.x and up) DecisionMaker Frequent error codes (valid from version 7.x and up) DM Frequent Error Codes Bisnode Credit IT 03.02.2014 1 (5) CONTENTS 1 Target... 3 2 About this document... 3 3 Error codes an messages...

Detaljer

Plagiat og PhD: Hva gjør man med det? Kunnskapsløs eller juksemaker? Plagiatsaker 18.09.2009

Plagiat og PhD: Hva gjør man med det? Kunnskapsløs eller juksemaker? Plagiatsaker 18.09.2009 Plagiat og PhD: Hva gjør man med det? Ole Bjørn Rekdal, Høgskolen i Bergen Solstrand 17. sept., 2009 Kunnskapsløs eller juksemaker? Tvilen skal komme tiltalte til gode Hvordan eliminere tvilen? Plagiatprøve?

Detaljer

Welcome to one of the world s coolest golf courses!

Welcome to one of the world s coolest golf courses! All Photography kindly supplied by kevinmurraygolfphotography.com Velkommen til Verdens råeste golfbane! Lofoten Links er en spektakulær 18-hulls mesterskapsbane som ligger vakkert i naturen. Her kan sola

Detaljer

BYGG BROER IKKE MURER

BYGG BROER IKKE MURER BYGG BROER IKKE MURER HBV og Dzemal Bijedic University of Mostar s internasjonale sommerskole i Mostar, Bosnia & Hercegovina Ved Lars Petter Soltvedt, PhD Høgskolen i Buskerud og Vestfold Synspunkter

Detaljer

6350 Månedstabell / Month table Klasse / Class 1 Tax deduction table (tax to be withheld) 2012

6350 Månedstabell / Month table Klasse / Class 1 Tax deduction table (tax to be withheld) 2012 6350 Månedstabell / Month table Klasse / Class 1 Tax deduction table (tax to be withheld) 2012 100 200 3000 0 0 0 13 38 63 88 113 138 163 4000 188 213 238 263 288 313 338 363 378 386 5000 394 402 410 417

Detaljer

The regulation requires that everyone at NTNU shall have fire drills and fire prevention courses.

The regulation requires that everyone at NTNU shall have fire drills and fire prevention courses. 1 The law The regulation requires that everyone at NTNU shall have fire drills and fire prevention courses. 2. 3 Make your self familiar with: Evacuation routes Manual fire alarms Location of fire extinguishers

Detaljer

Recognition of prior learning are we using the right criteria

Recognition of prior learning are we using the right criteria Recognition of prior learning are we using the right criteria Reykjavik 13.09.2012 Margrethe Steen Hernes, seniorrådgiver Nasjonal politikk Bakgrunn (1997 98) : Stortinget ber Regjeringen om å etablere

Detaljer

Public roadmap for information management, governance and exchange. 2015-09-15 SINTEF david.norheim@brreg.no

Public roadmap for information management, governance and exchange. 2015-09-15 SINTEF david.norheim@brreg.no Public roadmap for information management, governance and exchange 2015-09-15 SINTEF david.norheim@brreg.no Skate Skate (governance and coordination of services in egovernment) is a strategic cooperation

Detaljer

Kritisk lesning og skriving To sider av samme sak?

Kritisk lesning og skriving To sider av samme sak? og skriving To sider av samme sak? Geir Jacobsen Institutt for samfunnsmedisin Med en glidende overgang vil denne presentasjonen først handle om Kritisk lesning av fagartikler I engelsk litteratur brukes

Detaljer

Bodø 22.mai 2012 KLAR, FERDIG, GÅ! Lena Heitmann, prosjektleder og psykiatrisk sykepleier Linnéa Rosell Olsson, prosjektmedarbeider og psykolog

Bodø 22.mai 2012 KLAR, FERDIG, GÅ! Lena Heitmann, prosjektleder og psykiatrisk sykepleier Linnéa Rosell Olsson, prosjektmedarbeider og psykolog Bodø 22.mai 2012 KLAR, FERDIG, GÅ! Lena Heitmann, prosjektleder og psykiatrisk sykepleier Linnéa Rosell Olsson, prosjektmedarbeider og psykolog Agenda Bakgrunnen for JobbResept? Metode Praktisk gjennomføring

Detaljer

INSTRUKS FOR VALGKOMITEEN I AKASTOR ASA (Fastsatt på generalforsamling i Akastor ASA (tidligere Aker Solutions ASA) 6. mai 2011)

INSTRUKS FOR VALGKOMITEEN I AKASTOR ASA (Fastsatt på generalforsamling i Akastor ASA (tidligere Aker Solutions ASA) 6. mai 2011) INSTRUKS FOR VALGKOMITEEN I AKASTOR ASA (Fastsatt på generalforsamling i Akastor ASA (tidligere Aker Solutions ASA) 6. mai 2011) 1 Oppgaver Valgkomiteens oppgaver er å avgi innstilling til - generalforsamlingen

Detaljer

Bruk av ALARP analyse for beslutningstaking på behovet for sikkerhetssystemer / barrierer

Bruk av ALARP analyse for beslutningstaking på behovet for sikkerhetssystemer / barrierer Bruk av ALARP analyse for beslutningstaking på behovet for sikkerhetssystemer / barrierer Morten Sørum, Senior Advisor Safety, Statoil Classification: Internal 2014-11-16 ALARP prinsippet ALARP (As Low

Detaljer

EARLY CANCER DIAGNOSTIC IN NORWAY OLE ALEXANDER OPDALSHEI, THE NORWEGIAN CANCER SOCIETY

EARLY CANCER DIAGNOSTIC IN NORWAY OLE ALEXANDER OPDALSHEI, THE NORWEGIAN CANCER SOCIETY EARLY CANCER DIAGNOSTIC IN NORWAY OLE ALEXANDER OPDALSHEI, THE NORWEGIAN CANCER SOCIETY Norwegian Cancer Society in brief - The only national cancer society in Norway - Around 180 employees (different

Detaljer

SFI-Norman presents Lean Product Development (LPD) adapted to Norwegian companies in a model consisting of six main components.

SFI-Norman presents Lean Product Development (LPD) adapted to Norwegian companies in a model consisting of six main components. Hovedoppgave Masteroppgave ved ved IMM Høsten 2013 Lean Product Development Stability Drivers. Identifying Environmental Factors that Affect Performance. SFI-Norman presents Lean Product Development (LPD)

Detaljer

Fakultet for informasjonsteknologi, Institutt for datateknikk og informasjonsvitenskap AVSLUTTENDE EKSAMEN I. TDT42378 Programvaresikkerhet

Fakultet for informasjonsteknologi, Institutt for datateknikk og informasjonsvitenskap AVSLUTTENDE EKSAMEN I. TDT42378 Programvaresikkerhet Side 1 av 5 NTNU Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet BOKMÅL Fakultet for informasjonsteknologi, matematikk og elektroteknikk Institutt for datateknikk og informasjonsvitenskap AVSLUTTENDE EKSAMEN

Detaljer

Sikkert Drillingnettverk på CAT-D Rig

Sikkert Drillingnettverk på CAT-D Rig Sikkert Drillingnettverk på CAT-D Rig Med fokus på IT sikkerhet i offshore bransjen Kristiansand, 21/10/2014, Asgeir Skretting, Dag Tang Sikkert Drillingnettverk på CAT-D Rig Agenda Hvorfor sikker offshore

Detaljer

May legally defined terms be useful for improved interoperability in the public sector?

May legally defined terms be useful for improved interoperability in the public sector? May legally defined terms be useful for improved interoperability in the public sector? Prof. Dag Wiese Schartum, Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law, University of Oslo How may terms be legally

Detaljer

Frafall og EU-programmene. Henrik Arvidsson Rådgiver Trondheim/29.01.2016

Frafall og EU-programmene. Henrik Arvidsson Rådgiver Trondheim/29.01.2016 Frafall og EU-programmene Henrik Arvidsson Rådgiver Trondheim/29.01.2016 Fører deltakelse i EU-programmer til lavere frafall/høyere gjennomføring? Vi vet ikke. Men vi kan gjette. Årsaker til frafall Effekter

Detaljer

Interaction between GPs and hospitals: The effect of cooperation initiatives on GPs satisfaction

Interaction between GPs and hospitals: The effect of cooperation initiatives on GPs satisfaction Interaction between GPs and hospitals: The effect of cooperation initiatives on GPs satisfaction Ass Professor Lars Erik Kjekshus and Post doc Trond Tjerbo Department of Health Management and Health Economics

Detaljer

Avdelingslederen den nye pedagogiske lederen?

Avdelingslederen den nye pedagogiske lederen? Møte i kvalitetsnettverket, Skien 17. september 2015 Avdelingslederen den nye pedagogiske lederen? Førsteamanuensis Marit Aas Marit.aas@ils.uio.no Agenda 10.00-11.00: Internasjonale trender og politikkutforming

Detaljer

EXAM TTM4128 SERVICE AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT EKSAM I TTM4128 TJENESTE- OG RESSURSADMINISTRASJON

EXAM TTM4128 SERVICE AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT EKSAM I TTM4128 TJENESTE- OG RESSURSADMINISTRASJON Side 1 av 5 NTNU Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet Institutt for telematikk EXAM TTM4128 SERVICE AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT EKSAM I TTM4128 TJENESTE- OG RESSURSADMINISTRASJON Contact person /

Detaljer

International Economics

International Economics International Economics School of Business Date: 19 February 2008 Time: 4 hours Total number of pages including the cover page: 4 Total number of questions: 4 The candidate should attempt to answer all

Detaljer

Newtons fargeskive. Regnbuens farger blir til hvitt. Sett skiva i rask rotasjon ved hjelp av sveiva.

Newtons fargeskive. Regnbuens farger blir til hvitt. Sett skiva i rask rotasjon ved hjelp av sveiva. Newtons fargeskive Regnbuens farger blir til hvitt. Sett skiva i rask rotasjon ved hjelp av sveiva. Se hva som skjer med fargene. Hvitt lys består av en blanding av alle farger. Når fargeskiva roterer

Detaljer

Norwegian FAOS, version LK1.0

Norwegian FAOS, version LK1.0 Norwegian FAOS, version LK1.0 The KOOS form was translated from Swedish into Norwegian by the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR). The Norwegian National Knee Ligament Registry (NKLR) translated the

Detaljer

Er det noe konkret du har lyst til å jobbe med eller har du noen endringer du ønsker å gjennomføre?

Er det noe konkret du har lyst til å jobbe med eller har du noen endringer du ønsker å gjennomføre? Catalina Thomsen Natur og miljø Hvorfor stiller du til valg? Gjennom dette året har jeg har jeg fått mulighet til å bli kjent med mange av de internasjonale som går på HSN og fått et lite innblikk i hvilke

Detaljer

FASMED. Tirsdag 3.februar 2015

FASMED. Tirsdag 3.februar 2015 FASMED Tirsdag 3.februar 2015 PLAN FOR DAGEN/SCHEDULE 8.30 Velkommen, kaffe/te Welcome, coffee/tea 8.45 Introduksjon til formativ vurdering Introduction to formative assessment 9.30 Pause / Break 9.45

Detaljer

The building blocks of a biogas strategy

The building blocks of a biogas strategy The building blocks of a biogas strategy Presentation of the report «Background report for a biogas strategy» («Underlagsmateriale til tverrsektoriell biogass-strategi») Christine Maass, Norwegian Environment

Detaljer

Presentasjon, KORFOR konferanse, Stavanger 06.12.11. Anne Bolstad, sr psykologspesialist Avdeling for rusmedisin, Haukeland Universitetssykehus

Presentasjon, KORFOR konferanse, Stavanger 06.12.11. Anne Bolstad, sr psykologspesialist Avdeling for rusmedisin, Haukeland Universitetssykehus En fordypning i internasjonal og nasjonal forskningslitteratur om foreldres innflytelse på ungdoms bruk av rusmidler (med særlig fokus på alkoholrelaterte foreldreregler) Presentasjon, KORFOR konferanse,

Detaljer

Climate change and adaptation: Linking. stakeholder engagement- a case study from

Climate change and adaptation: Linking. stakeholder engagement- a case study from Climate change and adaptation: Linking science and policy through active stakeholder engagement- a case study from two provinces in India 29 September, 2011 Seminar, Involvering ved miljøprosjekter Udaya

Detaljer

Forbruk & Finansiering

Forbruk & Finansiering Sida 1 Forbruk & Finansiering Analyser og kommentarer fra Forbrukerøkonom Randi Marjamaa basert på en undersøkelse gjennomført av TEMO/MMI for Nordea RESULTATER FRA NORGE OG NORDEN Nordea 2006-02-28 Sida

Detaljer

Mangfold: Hva betyr det? Alt eller ingenting?

Mangfold: Hva betyr det? Alt eller ingenting? Mangfold: Hva betyr det? Alt eller ingenting? Associate Professor Laura E. M. Traavik I dag Definere og diskutere mangfold Mangfold og kontekst Hvordan møter vi mangfold? Hvordan jobber vi med mangfold?

Detaljer

PETROLEUM PRICE BOARD

PETROLEUM PRICE BOARD 1 PETROLEUM PRICE BOARD Our reference Date OED 15/712 21/09/2015 To the Licensees on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (Unofficial translation) NORM PRICE FOR CRUDE OIL PRODUCED ON THE NORWEGIAN CONTINENTAL

Detaljer

BEST in Akureyri, Island Hildigunnur Svavarsdóttir Director, Akureyri Hospital. BEST network meeting Bergen * Norway * 10.

BEST in Akureyri, Island Hildigunnur Svavarsdóttir Director, Akureyri Hospital. BEST network meeting Bergen * Norway * 10. BEST in Akureyri, Island Hildigunnur Svavarsdóttir Director, Akureyri Hospital BEST network meeting Bergen * Norway * 10. November 2014 Topics to be covered Our BEST activities in the last 2 years Results

Detaljer

Søker du ikke om nytt frikort, vil du bli trukket 15 prosent av din pensjonsutbetaling fra og med januar 2014.

Søker du ikke om nytt frikort, vil du bli trukket 15 prosent av din pensjonsutbetaling fra og med januar 2014. Skatteetaten Saksbehandler Deres dato Vår dato 31.10.2013 Telefon Deres referanse Vår referanse For information in English see page 3 Skattekort for 2014 Du fikk helt eller delvis skattefritak ved likningen

Detaljer

Økologisk og kulturell dannelse i økonomiutdanningen

Økologisk og kulturell dannelse i økonomiutdanningen Økologisk og kulturell dannelse i økonomiutdanningen Dannelse på norsk fra ord til handling Professor Ove Jakobsen HHB/UiN Frihet med ansvar Om høyere utdanning og forskning i Norge NOU 2000:14 Det er

Detaljer

Moving Innovation Forward!

Moving Innovation Forward! ! Movation Innovasjonsdugnaden! Norges ledende partnernettverk? Utfordringen! Flere enn 45 000 virksomheter startes hvert år i Norge... Mindre enn 20% overlever i løpet av de 3 første årene... Samtidig

Detaljer

Vekeplan 4. Trinn. Måndag Tysdag Onsdag Torsdag Fredag AB CD AB CD AB CD AB CD AB CD. Norsk Matte Symjing Ute Norsk Matte M&H Norsk

Vekeplan 4. Trinn. Måndag Tysdag Onsdag Torsdag Fredag AB CD AB CD AB CD AB CD AB CD. Norsk Matte Symjing Ute Norsk Matte M&H Norsk Vekeplan 4. Trinn Veke 39 40 Namn: Måndag Tysdag Onsdag Torsdag Fredag AB CD AB CD AB CD AB CD AB CD Norsk Engelsk M& Mitt val Engelsk Matte Norsk Matte felles Engelsk M& Mitt val Engelsk Norsk M& Matte

Detaljer

Social Media Insight

Social Media Insight Social Media Insight Do you know what they say about you and your company out there? Slik fikk Integrasco fra Grimstad Vodafone og Sony Ericsson som kunder. Innovasjon og internasjonalisering, Agdering

Detaljer

PIM ProsjektInformasjonsManual Tittel: REDUKSJON AV FLUORIDEKSPONERING I ALUMINIUMINDUSTRIEN INKLUDERT GRUNNLAG FOR KORTTIDSNORM FOR FLUORIDER

PIM ProsjektInformasjonsManual Tittel: REDUKSJON AV FLUORIDEKSPONERING I ALUMINIUMINDUSTRIEN INKLUDERT GRUNNLAG FOR KORTTIDSNORM FOR FLUORIDER SLUTTRAPPORT Innhold 1. Innledning 1.1 Deltakere 1.2 Bakgrunn 1.3 Mål 1.4 Organisasjon 2. Oppsummering 3. Summary in English 4. Referanser/References 1. INNLEDNING 1.1 Deltakere Alcan á Ísland Alcoa Fjarðaál

Detaljer

UNIVERSITETET I OSLO ØKONOMISK INSTITUTT

UNIVERSITETET I OSLO ØKONOMISK INSTITUTT UNIVERSITETET I OSLO ØKONOMISK INSTITUTT Bokmål Eksamen i: ECON1210 Forbruker, bedrift og marked Exam: ECON1210 Consumer Behaviour, Firm behaviour and Markets Eksamensdag: 12.12.2014 Sensur kunngjøres:

Detaljer

Psykososiale faktorer og livsstil som risikofaktorer for kronisk generalisert smerte: En HUNT studie

Psykososiale faktorer og livsstil som risikofaktorer for kronisk generalisert smerte: En HUNT studie Psykososiale faktorer og livsstil som risikofaktorer for kronisk generalisert smerte: En HUNT studie PhD student Ingunn Mundal Allmennmedisinsk forskningsenhet /ISM Institutt for nevromedisin, DMF, NTNU

Detaljer

NTNU, TRONDHEIM Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet Institutt for sosiologi og statsvitenskap

NTNU, TRONDHEIM Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet Institutt for sosiologi og statsvitenskap NTNU, TRONDHEIM Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet Institutt for sosiologi og statsvitenskap EKSAMENSOPPGAVE I SVPOL 105 Komparativ og Internasjonal Politikk Eksamensdato: 28.11.01 Eksamenstid:

Detaljer

Tjenestekjøp i offentlig sektor

Tjenestekjøp i offentlig sektor Virke, rundebordskonferanse, 5. februar 2013: Tjenestekjøp i offentlig sektor Hvor godt er lederskapet knyttet til disse kontraktsrelasjonene? Roar Jakobsen (roar.jakobs@gmail.com) Noen forskningsresultater

Detaljer

Administrasjon av postnummersystemet i Norge Post code administration in Norway. Frode Wold, Norway Post Nordic Address Forum, Iceland 5-6.

Administrasjon av postnummersystemet i Norge Post code administration in Norway. Frode Wold, Norway Post Nordic Address Forum, Iceland 5-6. Administrasjon av postnummersystemet i Norge Frode Wold, Norway Post Nordic Address Forum, Iceland 5-6. may 2015 Postnumrene i Norge ble opprettet 18.3.1968 The postal codes in Norway was established in

Detaljer

Grunnkurs D, Kongsberg 10.05.2016

Grunnkurs D, Kongsberg 10.05.2016 Grunnkurs D, Kongsberg 10.05.2016 Presentasjon av PhD prosjekt Sven Eirik Ruud Lege Allmennlegevakten i Oslo PhD stipendiat UIO Legevakten i Oslo 2 «Karriere»! 2006-2014 lege/skiftleder Allmenn LV 2009-2011

Detaljer

of color printers at university); helps in learning GIS.

of color printers at university); helps in learning GIS. Making a Home Page Why a Web Page? Easier to submit labs electronically (lack of color printers at university); Easier to grade many labs; Provides additional computer experience that helps in learning

Detaljer

Norwegian KOOS, version LK1.0

Norwegian KOOS, version LK1.0 Nasjonalt Register for Leddproteser The Norwegian Arthroplasty Register,c. Bergen 15 May 2007 Norwegian KOOS, version LK1.0 The KOOS form was translated into Norwegian in the following way. Translation

Detaljer

Norway. Museum Statistics for 2011. Statistical data from 134 museums that were open to the public and had at least one man year regular staff.

Norway. Museum Statistics for 2011. Statistical data from 134 museums that were open to the public and had at least one man year regular staff. Norway Museum Statistics for 2011. Statistical data from 134 museums that were open to the public and had at least one man year regular staff. Arts Council Norway Tel: +47 21 04 58 00 post@kulturrad.no

Detaljer

Lovlig bruk av Cloud Computing. Helge Veum, avdelingsdirektør Difi, Oslo 17.03.2014

Lovlig bruk av Cloud Computing. Helge Veum, avdelingsdirektør Difi, Oslo 17.03.2014 Lovlig bruk av Cloud Computing Helge Veum, avdelingsdirektør Difi, Oslo 17.03.2014 Vårt utgangspunkt Det er Datatilsynets utgangspunkt at det er mulig å oppnå godt personvern også i nettskyen Dette er

Detaljer

Sturm und drang i ungdomstiden - en historie om at det meste går bra til slutt og noe som ikke går så bra. Lars Lien Nasjonal kompetansetjeneste ROP

Sturm und drang i ungdomstiden - en historie om at det meste går bra til slutt og noe som ikke går så bra. Lars Lien Nasjonal kompetansetjeneste ROP Sturm und drang i ungdomstiden - en historie om at det meste går bra til slutt og noe som ikke går så bra Lars Lien Nasjonal kompetansetjeneste ROP Sturm und Drang Storm og trengsel var en tysk romantisk

Detaljer

Examination paper for SØK2009 International Macroeconomics

Examination paper for SØK2009 International Macroeconomics Department of Economics Examination paper for SØK2009 International Macroeconomics Academic contact during examination: Joakim Prestmo Phone: 73 59 83 37 Examination date: 04.12.2015 Examination time (from-to):

Detaljer

Managing Risk in Critical Railway Applications

Managing Risk in Critical Railway Applications Managing Risk in Critical Railway Applications Topics Railway signalling Real projects Regulator, standards and the law Acceptance criteria for signalling systems (SIL) Risk analysis a special case The

Detaljer

Presenting a short overview of research and teaching

Presenting a short overview of research and teaching Presenting a short overview of research and teaching Portuguese in Norway at university level Diana Santos d.s.m.santos@ilos.uio.no Romanskfagråd møte, Oslo, 31 October 2014 Research Research under Linguateca

Detaljer

Morten Walløe Tvedt, Senior Research Fellow, Lawyer. Seminar 6.juni 2008

Morten Walløe Tvedt, Senior Research Fellow, Lawyer. Seminar 6.juni 2008 Morten Walløe Tvedt, Senior Research Fellow, Lawyer Seminar 6.juni 2008 My Background: Marine and Fish Genetic Resource: Access to and Property Rights of Aquaculture Genetic Resources Norwegian Perspectives

Detaljer

Microsoft Dynamics C5 Version 2008 Oversigt over Microsoft Reporting Services rapporter

Microsoft Dynamics C5 Version 2008 Oversigt over Microsoft Reporting Services rapporter Reporting Services - oversigt Microsoft Dynamics C5 Version 2008 Oversigt over Microsoft Reporting Services rapporter Summary Efterfølgende vises en oversigt over de rapporter som er indeholdt i Microsoft

Detaljer

Kjønnsperspektiv I MNT utdanning og forskning

Kjønnsperspektiv I MNT utdanning og forskning Kjønnsperspektiv I MNT utdanning og forskning Lise Christensen, Nasjonalt råd for teknologisk utdanning og Det nasjonale fakultetsmøtet for realfag, Tromsø 13.11.2015 Det som er velkjent, er at IKT-fagevalueringa

Detaljer

1 User guide for the uioletter package

1 User guide for the uioletter package 1 User guide for the uioletter package The uioletter is used almost like the standard LATEX document classes. The main differences are: The letter is placed in a \begin{letter}... \end{letter} environment;

Detaljer

INNKALLING TIL ORDINÆR GENERALFORSAMLING I TELIO HOLDING ASA NOTICE OF ANNUAL SHAREHOLDERS MEETING IN TELIO HOLDING ASA

INNKALLING TIL ORDINÆR GENERALFORSAMLING I TELIO HOLDING ASA NOTICE OF ANNUAL SHAREHOLDERS MEETING IN TELIO HOLDING ASA INNKALLING TIL ORDINÆR GENERALFORSAMLING I TELIO HOLDING ASA NOTICE OF ANNUAL SHAREHOLDERS MEETING IN TELIO HOLDING ASA Aksjonærene i Telio Holding ASA ( Selskapet ) innkalles med dette til ordinær generalforsamling

Detaljer

Eksamen 23.05.2013. ENG1002/1003 Engelsk fellesfag Elevar og privatistar/elever og privatister. http://eksamensarkiv.net/ Nynorsk/Bokmål

Eksamen 23.05.2013. ENG1002/1003 Engelsk fellesfag Elevar og privatistar/elever og privatister. http://eksamensarkiv.net/ Nynorsk/Bokmål Eksamen 23.05.2013 ENG1002/1003 Engelsk fellesfag Elevar og privatistar/elever og privatister Nynorsk/Bokmål Nynorsk Eksamensinformasjon Eksamenstid Hjelpemiddel Eksamen varer i 5 timar. Alle hjelpemiddel

Detaljer

Kundetilfredshetsundersøkelse FHI/SMAP

Kundetilfredshetsundersøkelse FHI/SMAP Kundetilfredshetsundersøkelse FHI/SMAP Sluttrapport pr. 20. April 2010 Alle 9 kunder av FHI s produksjonsavdeling for biofarmasøytiske produkter (SMAP) i perioden 2008-2009 mottok i januar 2010 vårt spørreskjema

Detaljer

7 years as museum director at the Röhsska Museum, Göteborg. since February 2012 the museum director at the Sigtuna Museum, Sthlm

7 years as museum director at the Röhsska Museum, Göteborg. since February 2012 the museum director at the Sigtuna Museum, Sthlm 15 years in the advertising business 7 years as museum director at the Röhsska Museum, Göteborg since February 2012 the museum director at the Sigtuna Museum, Sthlm maksimere strategisk utviklingsplan

Detaljer

DISTRIKTSRØNTGEN. Høgskolen i Sørøst-Norge

DISTRIKTSRØNTGEN. Høgskolen i Sørøst-Norge DISTRIKTSRØNTGEN 216 kommuner i Norge er definert som distriktskommuner ( mer enn 50 km fra et sykehus) 47 kommuner tilbyr distrikts røntgen (12 sentre) ( Bønes, 2014) Ulike modeller for organisering:

Detaljer

Rapporterer norske selskaper integrert?

Rapporterer norske selskaper integrert? Advisory DnR Rapporterer norske selskaper integrert? Hvordan ligger norske selskaper an? Integrert rapportering er å synliggjøre bedre hvordan virksomheten skaper verdi 3 Norske selskaper har en lang vei

Detaljer

0100 Månedstabell/Month table Trekktabell 2013

0100 Månedstabell/Month table Trekktabell 2013 0100 Månedstabell/Month table Trekktabell 2013 Klasse / Class 1 For skatt av sjømannsinntekt med 10% standardfradrag, 30% sjømannsfradrag Trekk- 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Detaljer

part of Aker Aker Solutions MMO Dag Yngve Johnsen Ptil Entreprenørseminar 18.10.2011 2011 Aker Solutions 2011 Aker Solutions

part of Aker Aker Solutions MMO Dag Yngve Johnsen Ptil Entreprenørseminar 18.10.2011 2011 Aker Solutions 2011 Aker Solutions Aker Solutions MMO Dag Yngve Johnsen Siv Grethe Hansen HVO HR direktør Ptil Entreprenørseminar 18.10.2011 Aker Solutions forretningsområde MMO Lang industrihistorie MMO = Maintenance, Modifications & Operations

Detaljer

Profile handbook. for

Profile handbook. for Profile handbook for March 2007 Logo For the logo, we have chosen a shape in conformity with the general visual direction. The logo is inspired by the shape of the product, and the circle also creates

Detaljer

Innovasjonsvennlig anskaffelse

Innovasjonsvennlig anskaffelse UNIVERSITETET I BERGEN Universitetet i Bergen Innovasjonsvennlig anskaffelse Fredrikstad, 20 april 2016 Kjetil Skog 1 Universitetet i Bergen 2 Universitetet i Bergen Driftsinntekter på 4 milliarder kr

Detaljer

AVSLUTTENDE EKSAMEN I/FINAL EXAM. TDT4237 Programvaresikkerhet/Software Security. Mandag/Monday 15.12.2008. Kl. 09.00 13.00

AVSLUTTENDE EKSAMEN I/FINAL EXAM. TDT4237 Programvaresikkerhet/Software Security. Mandag/Monday 15.12.2008. Kl. 09.00 13.00 Side 1 av 7 NTNU Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet BOKMÅL//NYNORSK/ENGLISH Fakultet for informasjonsteknologi, matematikk og elektroteknikk Institutt for datateknikk og informasjonsvitenskap

Detaljer

Kundalini Yoga Lærerutdanning TROMSØ LEVEL 1 Instructor Training

Kundalini Yoga Lærerutdanning TROMSØ LEVEL 1 Instructor Training Påmeldingsskjema og kriterier for godkjenning av Kundalini Yoga Lærerutdanning TROMSØ LEVEL 1 Instructor Training ved Kundalini Yoga Skolen (kriterier for gjennomføring er på engelsk, men påmeldingsskjema

Detaljer

Strøm, H. K. & Ulvund, S. E. (27.05.2014). Beskrivelse og vurdering av tiltaket: Urolige spedbarn. I M. Martinussen (red), Ungsinn, tiltak nr. 40.

Strøm, H. K. & Ulvund, S. E. (27.05.2014). Beskrivelse og vurdering av tiltaket: Urolige spedbarn. I M. Martinussen (red), Ungsinn, tiltak nr. 40. Urolige spedbarn Strøm, H. K. & Ulvund, S. E. (27.05.2014). Beskrivelse og vurdering av tiltaket: Urolige spedbarn. I M. Martinussen (red), Ungsinn, Strøm, H. K. & Ulvund, S. E. (27.05.2014). Beskrivelse

Detaljer

Når risiko er uviss Nytten av å uttrykke og kommunisere grader av uvisshet i risikoanalyse. Audun Jøsang

Når risiko er uviss Nytten av å uttrykke og kommunisere grader av uvisshet i risikoanalyse. Audun Jøsang Når risiko er uviss Nytten av å uttrykke og kommunisere grader av uvisshet i risikoanalyse Audun Jøsang SINTEF, mars 2014 God og dårlig oversettelse Engelsk Norsk Security Safety Certainty Sikkerhet Trygghet

Detaljer

Ledelse og endring: Alle stemmer skal høres - En vei til suksess? Analyse av endringsarbeid i sykehjem? Førsteamanuensis Christine Øye

Ledelse og endring: Alle stemmer skal høres - En vei til suksess? Analyse av endringsarbeid i sykehjem? Førsteamanuensis Christine Øye Ledelse og endring: Alle stemmer skal høres - En vei til suksess? Analyse av endringsarbeid i sykehjem? Førsteamanuensis Christine Øye Bakgrunn og mål MEDCED Modeling and Evaluating evidence based Continuing

Detaljer

OTC USE IN NORWAY FOR PARACETAMOL, ATC-CODE: N02BE01

OTC USE IN NORWAY FOR PARACETAMOL, ATC-CODE: N02BE01 OTC USE IN NORWAY FOR PARACETAMOL, ATC-CODE: N02BE01 To gain OTC prescription status for a medicinal product an application in accordance with A guideline on changing the classification for the supply

Detaljer

EKSAMENSOPPGAVE SØK 3511 UTDANNING OG ARBEIDSMARKED

EKSAMENSOPPGAVE SØK 3511 UTDANNING OG ARBEIDSMARKED Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet Institutt for samfunnsøkonomi EKSAMENSOPPGAVE SØK 3511 UTDANNING OG ARBEIDSMARKED Høst 2003 Oppgaveteksten er skrevet på norsk og engelsk Oppgave 1 Betrakt

Detaljer

ATO program for Renewal of IR, Class or Type-rating

ATO program for Renewal of IR, Class or Type-rating May be used by the ATO in order to establish an individual training program for renewal of IR, Class or Type-rating in accordance with FCL.625 IR(c)(d) / AMC1 FCL.625(c) and FCL.740(b)(1)(2) / AMC1 FCL.740(b)(1)

Detaljer

https://sandefjord.ist-asp.com/sandefjordpub/login.htm

https://sandefjord.ist-asp.com/sandefjordpub/login.htm Søknad om plass i barnehage eller SFO i Sandefjord kommune Application for a place in kindergarten or day care facilities for school children, this will be referred to as SFO. Søknad om plass skal legges

Detaljer

Trygdeavtale mellom Australia og Norge

Trygdeavtale mellom Australia og Norge Trygdeavtale mellom Australia og Norge Australias trygdesystem Australias trygdesystem er annerledes enn de fleste andre utviklingsland. Hver persons pensjon utbetales av den australske staten med generelle

Detaljer

Juridiske aspekter ved publisering i åpne institusjonelle arkiv

Juridiske aspekter ved publisering i åpne institusjonelle arkiv Juridiske aspekter ved publisering i åpne institusjonelle arkiv Professor dr juris Olav Torvund Publisering i åpne institusjonelle arkiv Førstegangspublisering Masteroppgaver Doktoravhandlinger (?) Grålitteratur

Detaljer

Søker du ikke om nytt frikort/skattekort, vil du bli trukket 15 prosent av utbetalingen av pensjon eller uføreytelse fra og med januar 2016.

Søker du ikke om nytt frikort/skattekort, vil du bli trukket 15 prosent av utbetalingen av pensjon eller uføreytelse fra og med januar 2016. Skatteetaten Saksbehandler Deres dato Vår dato 26.10.2016 Telefon Deres Vår referanse For information in English see page 3 Skattekort for 2016 Du fikk helt eller delvis skattefritak ved likningen for

Detaljer

// Translation // KLART SVAR «Free-Range Employees»

// Translation // KLART SVAR «Free-Range Employees» // Translation // KLART SVAR «Free-Range Employees» Klart Svar is a nationwide multiple telecom store, known as a supplier of mobile phones and wireless office solutions. The challenge was to make use

Detaljer

GoOpen 2008 Oslo 8. april. Jernbaneverket Fri programvare i driftskritiske systemer. Ole Morten Killi ole.morten.killi@bouvet.

GoOpen 2008 Oslo 8. april. Jernbaneverket Fri programvare i driftskritiske systemer. Ole Morten Killi ole.morten.killi@bouvet. GoOpen 2008 Oslo 8. april Jernbaneverket Fri programvare i driftskritiske systemer Ole Morten Killi ole.morten.killi@bouvet.no Bouvet ASA Bouvet ASA Ca. 400 ansatte 8 kontorer Bouvets ambisjon er å være

Detaljer

NORGES TEKNISK-NATURVITENSKAPELIGE UNIVERSITET Geografisk institutt

NORGES TEKNISK-NATURVITENSKAPELIGE UNIVERSITET Geografisk institutt NORGES TEKNISK-NATURVITENSKAPELIGE UNIVERSITET Geografisk institutt BOKMÅL EKSAMEN i GEOG 2007 Effekter av klimaendringer Eksamensdato : 07.12.11 Sidetall bokmål: 2 Eksamenstid : 4 t Sidetall nynorsk:

Detaljer

2015 municipal and county council elections

2015 municipal and county council elections INFORMATION 0 municipal and county council elections Important information for voters English Engelsk Election Day is September. Remember to bring ID! 0 municipal and county council elections We use these

Detaljer

Cylindrical roller bearings

Cylindrical roller bearings Cylindrical roller bearings Cylindrical roller bearings 292 Definition and capabilities 292 Series 292 Variants 293 Tolerances and clearances 294 Design criteria 296 Installation/assembly criteria 297

Detaljer

Stiftelsens navn er Stiftelsen Trondheim International School. Stiftelsen Trondheim International School s grunnkapital er kr 10 000,00.

Stiftelsens navn er Stiftelsen Trondheim International School. Stiftelsen Trondheim International School s grunnkapital er kr 10 000,00. 1 Stiftelsens navn Stiftelsens navn er Stiftelsen Trondheim International School. Stiftelsen Trondheim International School s adresse og kontorsted er Trondheim kommune. 2 Grunnkapital Stiftelsen Trondheim

Detaljer