ROYAL NORWEGIAN MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT

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1 ROYAL NORWEGIAN MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT EFTA Surveillance Authority Rue Belliard 35 B-1040 Brussels Belgium Your ref Our ref Date 12/ JUL 2013 Time extention notification for the NO2 limit value In accordance with article 22 nr 4 of the ambient air quality directive (2008/50/EC), Norway hereby notifies the Authority of the exceedence and uses the possibility to apply for an extension of the compliance date of the NO2 limit value to 2015 for the four applicable zones. Please find the notification enclosed. Yours sincerely, Deputy Director General Elisabeth Sandnes Higher Executive Officer Postal address PO Box 8013 Dep 0030 Oslo Office address Myntgt. 2 Telephone Vat no Department for Climate Change and Pollution Control Our officer Elisabeth Sandnes

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3 Time extension notification for the NO2 limit value 1 About the time extension notification Assessments of the air quality in four designated air quality zones in Norway, shows that the limit values for N0 2 set out in Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe article 13 nr 1, cf. Annex XL, was not met by the specified date of 1 January The zones which do not comply are NOl, N02, N03 and N05. In accordance with article 22 nr 4 of the directive, Norway hereby notifies the EFTA Surveillance Authority of the exceedence and uses the possibility to apply for an extension of the compliance date of the N0 2 limit value to 2015 for the four applicable zones. The structure of the notification is based on the main requirements set out in art. 22 of the directive, regarding the postponement of attainment deadlines for certain limit values. In Chapter 2 the 2010 exceedances in the air quality zones are described. Chapter 3 explains general conditions in Norway related to policy, air pollution management and natural factors affecting air quality. Chapter 4 lists the national instruments and measures in each zone to reach the original attainment date in 2010, and chapter 5 covers similar information about measures and instruments which have effect after 2010 and towards Information concerning the status of implementation of relevant directives (2008/50/EC, Annex XV B) are summarized in chapter 6. Detailed information in Norwegian provided by the municipalities and the Norwegian Public Roads Administration can be found in Annex

4 Content 1 About the time extension notification 1 2 Description of the N02 exceedances in the zones 3 3 Background 5 4 Implemented measures to achieve compliance by the initial attainment date 8 5 Implemented measures to achieve compliance before the new deadline 14 6 Concluding remarks 20 7 Implementation of relevant directives, 21 8 References Annex 1: Information provided by NOl Annex 2: Information provided by N02 Feil! Bokmerke er ikke definert Annex 3: Information provided by N03 Feil! Bokmerke er ikke definert Annex 4: Information provided by N Annex 5: Information provided by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration Feil! Bokmerke er ikke definert.83 2

5 2 Description of the N02 exceedances in the zones According to art 13 nr. 1, cf. Annex XI B of the Air Quality Directive the annual limit value for N02 is 40 ig/m3. Exceedance of the annual limit value is considered more severe than the 18 permitted exceedances of the hourly limit valuel in the Air Quality Directive. Therefore, the latter is not presented in this notification. This is in line with the requirements in the time extension notification (TEN) set by the EU Commission. A description of the exceedances in the four zones follows below: 2.1 NOl Oslo municipality: N0 2 concentration on station NO0093A (Hjortnes) Year Concentration (lig/m 3 ) The monitoring station located at Hjortnes shows the highest N0 2 concentration in Oslo in The station is placed 4 meters from the European highway E18. The Port of Oslo, road traffic and other area sources contribute to the exceedance. A reference projection for 2015 shows the following share of contribution for buildings exposed to N0 2 concentration above the limit value: Source Share Road traffic 60-70% 2 Port of Oslo ~10% Other area sources ~15% Background <10% For further details, see Annex I. Drammen municipality: N0 2 concentration on station NO0067A (Bangel0kka) Year Concentration ( ig/m 3 ) Data capture 2009 _3 51% % % The monitoring station located at Bangel0kka is a traffic station and shows the highest N0 2 concentration in Drammen in There are no sources, other than road traffic, which could contribute significantly to this exceedance. For further details, see Annex II. 1 Oslo, Bergen and Stavanger exceeded the allowed number of 18 exceedances of the limit value. 2 High uncertainty regarding actual emissions from diesel cars. 3 Too low data capture to assess annual mean 3

6 2.2 N02 Bergen municipality: N0 2 concentration on station NO0059A (Danmarksplass) Year Concentration (kig/m 3 ) The monitoring station at Danmarksplass, which is a traffic station, detected the highest N0 2 concentration measured in Bergen in Road traffic is the main contributor. Ships and area sources also emit significant amounts of NO x, however, the contribution to the concentration is low. For further details, see Annex II. 2.3 N03 Trondheim municipality: N0 2 concentration on station NO0060A (Elgeseter) Year Concentration (Mg/m 3 ) The traffic monitoring station at Elgeseter Street, measured the highest N0 2 concentration in Trondheim in Road traffic is the main contributor. For further details, see Annex III. 2.4 N05 Stavanger municipality: N0 2 concentration on station NO0076A (Kannik) Year Concentration (Hg/m 3 ) The monitoring station at Kannik, which is a traffic station, shows the highest N0 2 concentration in Stavanger in Road traffic is the main contributor. For further details, see Annex IV 4 Data capture 74 % 4

7 3 Background This chapter contains background information and describes some of the basic conditions which are relevant for the N0 2 situation in Norway. Policy and authorities The Norwegian legislation concerning local air quality delegates the role as pollution control authority to the municipalities. The municipalities shall ensure that: a monitoring program is established when lower assessment thresholds are exceeded action plans are implemented and the monitoring program is extended when the upper assessment thresholds are exceeded measures are implemented when the limit value and the obligations are exceeded information to the public according to certain requirements when the alarm thresholds are exceeded updated and accessible information on air quality and action plans air quality data is reported monthly The Climate and Pollution Agency (Klif) has a designated role as an advisor for the municipalities in their work with local air quality. In addition the owner of activity(s) which contributes to the exceedance of the requirements has an independent responsibility to ensure compliance with the limit values, and can, in accordance with the polluter pays-principle, be required to carry out and/or finance the obligations listed above. Road traffic is the main contributor to the exceedance of the N0 2 limit value in Norway. The roads are administrated locally, regionally or nationally dependent on size, length and range of the road. Therefore, several authorities are legally responsible for road emissions; Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA), counties and municipalities. Other contributors to elevated N0 2 concentrations in the biggest cities are harbours and small combustion sources. Different laws and regulations, i.e. the National Road Traffic Act, gives the legal basis for measures implemented to improve local air quality. Some measures have as its main focus to tackle the acute situations, others to tackle the more long term problem of the annual exceedence. The latter being described in this notification, ct. Chapter 2, first paragraph. The national authorities are to help the local authorities to continue and intensify their efforts, and to provide them with effective instruments to use in this work. Zones for air quality assessment Norway is divided into seven zones for air quality assessment. Three of these zones are agglomerations and four are rural zones including towns and cities of a smaller population size. The zones included in the time extension notification for N0 2 are, as described in Chapter 2: 5

8 N01 (Oslo including suburbs and surrounding municipalities) N02 (Bergen) N03 (Trondheim) N05 (Three counties: Rogaland, Hordaland except Bergen and Sogn and Fjordane) In the Oslo agglomeration zone (NOl), the N0 2 limit value was exceeded in both Drammen and Oslo in In the present time extension notification for zone NOl, the local authorities appointed by Norwegian legislation are both Oslo and Drammen municipalities. In N05, the large agglomeration covering Stavanger and Sandnes municipalities are the relevant authorities. Climate The Norwegian climate is generally cold. However, the elongated country and the north-south directed mountain range in the southern part of Norway, results in large geographic climate variations. There are also extensive year to year-variations. The climate in Oslo and Drammen is generally much drier and colder compared to the climate in Bergen and Stavanger, where low pressures from the Atlantic Ocean affect the weather conditions, especially in the cold seasons. The low pressures are associated with mild winds and precipitation. These patterns may have annual variations resulting in large differences from one winter to another as well as within one winter season. In 2010, the entire southern part of Norway had long periods with high pressure during January. This led to a temperature inversion episode which lasted for more than one week in Oslo and Bergen, a particularly uncommon situation in Bergen. The effect of this inversion period was reflected in both the high number of hourly exceedances and the annual average (see chapter 2.2) in Bergen in 2010 compared to other years. General conditions for achieving the EU air quality limit value for N0 2 Action plans written in the period , made use of Euro 1-5/l-V vehicle emission standards to represent exhaust emissions in the numerical models projecting local air quality in However, the real world driving emissions of NO x did not comply with the standards and N0 2 concentrations in urban areas with high levels of road traffic increased. In addition, the N0 2 component of NO x was found to be much higher from Euro 5/V vehicles as a consequence of the particle filter technology used in these vehicles. Research conducted in the United Kingdom 5 confirms this, particularly with regard to the higher than expected NOx/N0 2 emissions from Euro 3/111 and Euro 4/IV vehicles. The real-world Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) by Air Quality Expert Group (2007): Trends in Primary Nitrogen Dioxide in the UK. 6

9 emissions are higher than the intended levels prescribed by the Euro standards. The Norwegian public roads administration has also tested the NOx/N0 2 emissions from Euro 5/V vehicles during urban driving under Nordic climate conditions. The tests showed that the Euro 5/V vehicles did not meet their NO x standards. Figure 1 shows the impact of different driving conditions on the N0 2 emissions, see Chapter 5. 0,50 0,45 0, ,25 0, ,10 0,05 0,00 Euro 0 k Euro 1 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6 K0 BY Landevei Figure 1: NÖ2emissions (g/km)from diesel cars under different driving conditions: Queue (blue), urban (red) and rural areas (green). Source: HBEFA Results of a new study initiated by the European Commission/JRC 6 show that also Euro 6 diesel cars fails to comply with the NO x standard during real world driving conditions. Norwegian Public Roads Administration has also initiated a project where some new Euro 6/VI vehicles (LDV and HDV) have been tested during urban driving under Nordic climate conditions at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland's test laboratory in Helsinki. Results from these limited tests show that the emissions of NO x from new Euro 6 light vehicles may be significantly lower than from corresponding Euro 5 light vehicles, but that the they still at 23 C in real life traffic may be about 2-4 times higher than the Euro 6 approval limits, and about 5-8 times higher at -7 C (Nordic winter). Emission of unregulated emission components from Euro 6 cars and new engine concepts may be higher and different compared with what you traditionally have measured from David Carslaw, Sean Beevers, Emily Westmoreland and Martin Williams (King's College London] James Tate (University of Leeds) and Tim Murrells, John Stedman, Yvonne Li, Susannah Grice, Andrew Kent and loannis Tsagatakis (AEA) (July 2011): Trends in NOx and N0 2 emissions and ambient measurements in the UK. Prepared for DEFRA. 6 Will Euro 6 reduce the NO x emissions of new diesel cars? - Insights from on-road tests with Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS), Weiss et al (2012) 7

10 diesel engine cars. The emissions of NOx and N02 from heavy duty vehicles with Euro VI engines may be so low that these vehicles emit less of these exhaust components than today's diesel engine cars with Euro 5 technology, and they can reach about the same level as Euro 6 diesel engine cars. 7 A reduction in the one-off registration tax on light duty vehicles with lower C0 2 emissions in 2007 led to an increase in sales of diesel cars. Further evaluation of the reduced taxes on vehicles with low C0 2 emission concluded, in St.prp. nr. 1 ( ), that new emission requirements for Euro 5/V (2009) and Euro 6/VI (2014) would reduce the NO x emissions from diesel vehicles. In order to address problems with NO x in major cities, a NO x -component were introduced to the one-off registration tax for passenger cars in St.prp. nr 1 ( ), see Chapter 6. 4 Implemented measures to achieve compliance by the initial attainment date Road traffic is by far the main contributor to the exceedances of the N0 2 annual limit value. The main focus for implementing relevant national and local measures by 2010 has therefore been on the road sector. National measures and instruments The National Transport Plan (NTP), which is produced every fourth year, shows how the Norwegian government intends to develop transport infrastructure over the next ten years. Of the presented measures in NTP for the period (NTP ), the following measures were implemented by 2010: Increased funding of public transport and construction of a continuous bicycle network. Increased subsidies for railway transport Agglomerations can apply for financial support earmarked to measures which increase use of public transport and decrease use of cars. Mutually binding agreements between the state and the cities to promote more coordinated area- and transport plans. In 2008, the road legislation was amended so as to allow toll system incomes to finance public transport. In addition to the measures presented and implemented as part of NTP, the following measures to reduce N0 2 concentration were in place by 2010: New emission standards (EU standards) 7 Rolf Hagman and Astrid H. Amundsen Utslipp fra kj0ret0y med Euro 6/VI teknologi. 8

11 Fuel tax on diesel Information and capacity building for local authorities and the public: In 1999, national authorities established an air quality forecasting system. Today, it covers 14 cities. The forecasts are especially important both for warning the public and as a basis for the implementation of short term measures. An air quality project named "Bedre byluft" (BBF) was established in 1998 by the political leadership of the Ministry of Transport to investigate new measures on air quality. The project is now a forum with regular meetings about legislation, exchange of new knowledge and discussions about challenges concerning the implementation of measures. Representatives from local, regional and national pollution authorities, road authorities, health authority researchers, NGOs and relevant enterprises participate in the forum. The web page was established in 2001 (front led with simpler website for daily notification of air quality from 1998). It provides general information about air quality, measures, current and historical data, air quality forecasts, important reports and minutes of the BBF meetings. Local measures The following chapter summarizes the measures implemented in the four zones which exceeded the N0 2 limit value in A more detailed description can be found in Annex 1, 2, 3 and 4. NOl Oslo municipality: List of measures: 1. Reduce traffic growth: Implemented in the strategy for Area- and Transport Planning (ATP), measures include densification around public transport nodes and networks, improved public transportation, extension of the bicycle road network and stricter parking regulations. The toll ring in Oslo, called 'Oslo Package no 3', is an overall plan for developing and financing roads and public transport in Oslo and Akershus, including railway-projects. Oslo Package no 3 is financed by tolls and state local funding, and some local/regional funding. Oslo Package no 3 is to promote sustainable transportation, and to increase the mobility for all groups of transport- and road users. Public transport improvements include modernisation and expansion of the metro rolling-stock, a significant increase in the frequency of tram and bus routes (including many 10-minute routes), better service reliability and upgrading of infrastructure and vehicles. 9

12 2. Reduced emissions from heavy duty vehicles and buses: Stricter emissions requirements for vehicles contracted by the municipality and public transport companies. 3. Information campaign to reduce traffic growth by mobility planning: Developing travel plans in public sector, schools and the business sector 4. Eco-driving Educational programs have been established to teach professional drivers techniques which reduce their individual emissions. 5. Information one web pages and air quality prediction Continuous up to date air quality levels from monitoring stations are shown on Daily 48-hour forecasts in the winter season are also distributed on web pages, media channels and to subscribers. 6. Toll ring Revenues from Oslo's toll ring are an important source of financing for transport infrastructure and public transport. In addition it has, to some extent, reduced traffic volumes (estimated at 3-5%). Effect of measures: There has been some success in limiting the growth in car traffic, primarily as a result of substantial improvements to public transport; e.g., frequency and reliability of services, network and infrastructure improvements, and modernization of vehicle fleets including upgrading to buses with lower emissions. The bicycle road network has been extended. Spatial planning procedures take account of air quality in areas where the national target for N0 2 is exceeded, this being a maximum 8 exceedances of an hourly average of 150 ig/m 3. Drammen municipality: List of measures: 1. Changes in the road network Extensions and rerouting of certain roads which lead to traffic reductions in the city center. 2. Parking regulations Reduced availability of parking spaces through decreased number of spaces increased parking fees in the city center and reduced maximal time for parking. 3. Public transport Airport express train extended to Drammen, increased frequency of buses. 10

13 4. Facilities for bicycles Establishment of bicycle parking. 5. Mobility campaigns Drammen is a part of the European mobility week. 6. Futurebuilt Drammen is a part of the project which promotes climate effective development of cities. N02 Bergen municipality: 1. Parking regulations Construction of new parking areas outside the city center combined with more strict parking regulations in the city center. 2. Mobility Campaigns A variety of campaigns to promote environmentally friendly transport choices by the public. 3. Information and forecasting Up to date air quality levels from monitoring stations are shown on Updated two days air quality forecasts in the winter season circulated on web pages, local radio stations and to subscribers. There are also environmental certifications on a municipal scale which intend to change the travel habits of the employees. 4. Reduced emissions from municipal activities New policy related to business travelling and transportation for municipal employees. 5. Establishment of an emergency plan A cooperation between public transport companies and public authorities to identify appropriate measures in emergency cases. N03 Trondheim municipality: 11

14 N0 2 measures before 2010 were mainly implemented through the municipal land use and transportation plans (ATP) and energy plans. List of measures: 1. Improved public transportation Lanes on highly trafficked roads reserved for public transport. 2. Parking policy Stricter regulations of existing and planned parking areas. 3. Local regulations on energy Obligation to connect new and extensively renovated buildings to connect to the district heating system. 4. Mobility campaigns Trondheim is part of the European mobility week Effects of measures: There has been a substantial increase in passenger numbers for buses, both locally and regionally. As a result of the land use policy in Trondheim, most of the city's growth took place along public transport routes. N05 Stavanger municipality: List of measures: 1. Infrastructure for low emission fuels An agreement between the energy companies "Lyse energi" and Rogaland County to increase the number of stations for bio and natural gas. 2. Municipal use of low emission vehicles The municipality promotes use of biogas by signing an agreement on biogas cars. 3. Charging stations for electric cars Stations have been constructed, also for "quick charging". 4. Improvement of the public transport system and electric cars Increased reliability for bus services and electric cars. 5. Construction of bicycle network 6. Stricter parking policy 12

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16 5 Implemented measures to achieve compliance before the new deadline This chapter gives an overview of measures implemented since 2010 or planned implemented towards Chapter 5.1 describes the national measures and instruments, while 5.2 describes the local measures in the zones. National measures and instruments The White paper on Norwegian Climate Policy (Meld.St. 21 ( ) includes traffic reducing measures that will reduce the N02 emissions in Norwegian cities: Adopt a goal of absorbing the growth in passenger transport in major urban areas through public transportation, bicycling and walking. In and around the major urban areas, public transport and bicycling initiatives shall be granted higher priority in the allocation of transport funding. Give public transport an important role in the White Paper on the National Transport Plan for (NTP ) and prepare an action plan on public transport as follow-up of the NTP. Reinforce the role of the railways in the transport system. Increase investments in the railway system, particularly around the largest cities. Increase State subsidies for investment in, and operation of, municipal public transport and other environmentally-friendly forms of transport. This will be done through binding agreements for urban areas, for example as is the case with the existing reward schemes. The agreements must contain goals and instruments designed to increase the share of public transport, bicycling and walking, as well as measures aimed at reducing car use. It is a precondition that environmental goals are emphasized and achieved in such binding agreements. In connection with NTP , present a progress plan for development of the InterCity railway connection in central Eastern Norway, with a binding schedule for when various routes can be completed. In NTP , present a comprehensive goods transport strategy, which includes promoting the transfer of goods transport from road to rail. In NTP , present a bicycling strategy including increased financial allocations to walkways and bikeways, so that the annual appropriation at the end of the first part of the NTP period is double the current level. Establish Transnova as a permanent body and gradually increase the financial support to Transnova. The newly presented National Transport Plan (NTP) for the years follows up the White paper on Climate Change and further extends the measures listed above. The relative amount of funding which targets public transport, bicycling and walking is significantly increased. In addition a new system of binding agreements between the state and the cities are established. The aim of the agreements is to move travellers from private to public transport, by adopting targeted and coherent measures both at state and local level. In addition the important role of an overall areaand transport planning is highly emphasized. 14

17 In addition to measures presented in NTP the following measures and policy instruments to reduce N0 2 concentration has been developed after 2010: New elements in the National Road Traffic Act and the Road Act: In 2010,1t was clarified that the Norwegian Public Road Administration and local municipalities could introduce temporary local traffic measures on their roads also due to environmental concerns, inter alia, to reduce NO2 exceeding the limit value. Examples of such measures are that cars may only drive on certain days. (http://www.lovdata.no/ltavd2/filer/lf html) In 2011, a legal framework was put into force enabling municipalities to employ congestion charging. Congestion charging is an effective and accurate measure to reduce N02 emissions in the cities. The main purpose is to control traffic in order to reduce local queues and local environmental problems. The rates in a Norwegian congestion charging system may also be differentiated over hours in the day and between zones, by vehicle types, such as Euro classes, so that vehicles with high emissions can pay more than vehicles with low emissions, etc. (http://www.lovdata.no/for/sf/sd/td html#2). In 2012, the legal framework was established and put into force enabling the larger cities to differentiate the rates in existing toll systems by time of day as a temporary measure on days with high pollution. The implementation of this temporary instrument will be based on local council decisions (http://www.lovdata.no/all/tl html#27). Measures to reduce traffic are most effective when used in combination, for example congestion charging combined with parking restrictions and improvements in public transport. Instrument to reduce vehicle emissions: NO x - component in the purchase tax from The N0 X component was further strengthened in Diesel share of new sold cars are reduced from about 80 percent in 2011 to about 55 percent in May Zero emission vehicles are except from the one-time fee on vehicles until the next parliamentary term (2017). Other instruments to encourage use of such vehicles are increased access to public transport lanes, exemption from road tolls, free public parking and improved access to charging stations must be seen in context with the traffic development in the cities. A research project on N0 2 emissions from different EU engine standards was finished in November It focused on existing and projected emissions from vehicles in real driving as well as Nordic climate conditions, followed by possible measures to reduce the emissions. Tests on some available new EURO 6/VI vehicles (HDV and LDV) have been made in A report was published in April 2013 Transnova, a body established under the auspice of the Ministry of Transport and Communication, provides grants and advice for pilot and demonstration projects, 15

18 encouraging new and future-oriented sustainable mobility solutions. Transnova supports climate efficient transport by promoting; new technologies (development and availability of transport technologies based on renewable energy), increased use of climate efficient means of transport (more public transport, more walking and cycling and increased freight transport by sea and rail), reductions in transport (better utilisation of transport capacity and solutions that reduce transport needs). Although these measures are primarily aimed at greenhouse gas emissions, the measures will also have a positive effect on N02 emissions. Information and capacity building for local authorities and the public: In cooperation with the Norwegian Public Roads Administration, the Norwegian Directorate of Health and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Klif developed a guideline describing air quality measures for the municipalities. The aim was to help the municipalities to implement available measures and to use the existing legislation. The guideline describes the general distribution of authority, the different Acts and regulations, the measures available and under development, how to implement the measures and other advice related to these. It was published in September 2011 and will be continuously updated. A new guidance and information module on air quality models, "ModLUFT", was developed and made publicly available on the web page in The page provides relevant guidance for municipalities, polluters and consultants using models in air quality management. A national total background concentration field was developed and also published as an application on the "ModLUFT" web pages under The background field is based solely on monitoring data from Norwegian background stations (urban, suburban and regional). The concentration field is for N0 2, 0 3, PM 10 and PM 2i5 with a grid resolution of lokmxlokm. Local measures NOl Oslo municipality: The strategy for area and transport planning contains measures which are effective in reducing N0 2 concentrations in the long term. In 2010, the Oslo and Baerum municipalities adopted a revised action plan towards The action plan contains measures targeting NOx/NOz. List of measures: 1. Reduce traffic growth (continuation of such measures as before 2010): Implemented in the strategy for Area - and Transport Planning (ATP). These measures include densification around public transport nodes and networks, improved public transport, extension of the bicycle road network and stricter parking regulations. Oslo Package 3 is a key tool. This is a program for road improvement and development of public transport in Oslo 16

19 and Akershus County. The time frame is 2008 to 2027 at a cost of NOK 59 billion ca. 40 % of which is reserved for public transport investment and running costs. During , NOK 16 billion will be prioritized to grants for the operation and improved reliability of public transport, development of the cycle network, upgrading of the metro and tram network and construction of a new metro line. 2. Air quality attitude campaign In 2013 an information strategy will be developed to inform the public about health effects and the measures they can take particularly on days with poor air quality. Electronic traffic signs with simple messages regarding air quality are also under development. 3. Shore electricity in the Port of Oslo Access to shore electricity was installed for the first ships in 2011/2012. An expansion is underassessment. 4. Electric vehicle program By 2015 all municipal cars should be EVs (vehicle acquisition contract is already in place). The municipality has established 400 charging stations of 600 in Oslo, and offers free parking, access to bus lanes and exemption from toll charges for EVs. By 2014, 50 % of street parking spaces I the city center will be converted to charging stations Drammen municipality Drammen municipality is included in the urban project Buskerudbyen (www.buskerudbyen.no), where the goal is to promote an effective and more environmentally friendly transport system. Drammen municipality is one of five municipalities in the project, which also includes other essential national and regional authorities. Most of the measures listed below are initiated by this project. List of measures: 1. Changes in the road network Measures to relieve roads in the city center, which have changed the city center from a large traffic area to a square suitable for pedestrians and bicycles. 2. Parking regulations Free charging facilities for electric cars, restriction on access to parking places in residential areas. 3. Public transport Increased reliability of bus services, increased frequency and improved facilities. Increased frequency of train services to Oslo. 4. Measure to encourage cycling Introduction and extension of a city bike system, extension of bicycle parking, bicycle hotel, bicycle road inspection, bicycle barometer, revised bicycle plan, extension of the bicycle road network. 5. Campaigns Continuation of the European mobility week, school campaigns to activate pupils, "biking to work" campaigns and other bicycle campaigns. 17

20 6. Facilities for electric cars "Quick" charging station established outside the city center as part of a corridor of such stations between Oslo and Kongsberg. N02 Bergen municipality Bergen municipality's action plan adopted in 2008 contains measures targeting N0 2. In addition, measures after 2010 are based on the plan "Tiltaksplan : Betre kollektivtransport og mindre bilbruk i Bergensomrädet, november 2011". List of measures: 1. Area and transport planning These measures are integrated area planning, improved public transport, extension of the bicycle road network and stricter parking regulations. 2. Follow-up on the action plan from 2007 These measures are continuations of the measures described under chapter 2, including; parking regulations in the city center, mobility campaigns, air quality forecasting and information, municipal activity. There are also plans for a pilot project on supplying shore electricity to ships. 3. Short term actions Driving restrictions based on whether vehicle license plates end in an odd or even number, and redirecting of ships to harbours outside of Bergen are examples of measures implemented in the emergency plan. N03 Trondheim municipality Continuation of the measures implemented before 2010 is expected to have effect on N0 2 concentrations after A plan for sustainable transport (Milj0pakken i Trondheim; was adopted in 2009 that will also have further effects in the coming years. Its main goal is to restrict growth in private car use and increase the use of public transport, bicycles and walking. List of measures: 18

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