RAPPORT. Nasjonal Nettverkssamling

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1 RAPPORT Nasjonal Nettverkssamling for DRAMA/TEATERFAG November

2 Kjære nettverksdeltaker Vi håper at du gjennom å lese denne nettverksrapporten kan få frisket opp minnene fra nettverkssamlingen i Bergen høsten Dramaseksjonen ved HiB hadde satt seg tre målsetninger med denne nettverkssamlingen: Den ene var å ta vare på nettverksarbeid generelt, og i tillegg fokusere på knutpunktfunksjonen spesielt, siden HiB hadde fått tilsatt en egen knutepunktskoordinator. Den andre var å inspirere og begeistre deltakerne med tanke på IDEA 2001 ved å gi dem en forsmak på hva kongressen vil kunne gi dem av opplevelser og spennende møter med drama og teaterfolk fra hele verden. Den tredje målsetningen var å høste erfaringer med den programstrukturen vi la opp til på verdenskongressen. Derfor kalte vi nettverkssamlingen for "Mini-IDEA. Generalprøven." Vi føler at vi langt på veg nådde våre mål med nettverkskonferansen, og at programmet i sin helhet fungerte bra. Som rapporten vil vise, kommer det likevel flere synspunkt under evalueringsdelen om ting som kunne vært planlagt og utført på en bedre måte. Vi beklager at rapporten er blitt så forsinket, men for- og etterarbeid tilknyttet IDEA 2001 tok all vår tid, og knutepunktkoordinator ble engasjert i ISME Rapporten vil imidlertid nå kunne sees i sammenheng med rapporten fra IDEA 2001, som nå er publisert på Internett: Dramaseksjonen, HiB Bergen

3 Stig A. Eriksson: Internasjonale gjesteforelesere...5 Guest lecturer Larry O Farrell: Issues and Models in Drama/Theatre and Education Research...6 Issues...6 What is Research?...8 What Can We Learn?...12 How Can We Communicate Research?...12 Summary...13 Literature Cited...14 Guest lecturer Francine Chaîné: Enter the Image as Alice...16 Enter the Image as Alice...17 The Place of the Arts in the Pre-School System...18 Five-Year Olds at School...18 The Works...19 Making Accomplices Out of Teachers...19 The Creative Approach...20 The Impact of the Research Project...21 Conclusion...22 APPENDIX...24 Presentation of the story of Icarus...24 Discussion with the students...24 Exercises using body language...24 References...25 Guest Lecturer Liliana Galván: Collective Creation Building Identity...26 Context and consequences:...26 To change is a challenge...26 New paradigm...27 Links...28 Guest Lecturer Beatriz A. V. Cabral: Theatre in Transit - Interactive Drama and Theatre in Education...30 Keyhole...31 David Keir Wright: A Pirandellian Keyhole...32 Ekskursjon til kongressarenaene...34 Anne Ørvig: Assisterende Personell til IDEA asper...34 Øystein Kvinge: Knutepunktkoordinatoren har ordet...35 Nettverk og knutepunkt frametter

4 Evaluering av Nasjonal Nettverkssamling for Drama/Teaterfag, Post Conference Letters...39 Program for nettverkssamling, Drama, Bergen Påmelde til nettverkssamlinga i drama, Høgskulen i Bergen november Påmeldingsskjema til arbeid i SIG-grupper...47 INVITASJON:

5 Stig A. Eriksson: Internasjonale gjesteforelesere Til mini-idea ønsket vi å presentere representanter fra det internasjonale dramamiljøet, og helst også de tre språkkulturene som IDEA består av. Samtidig ville vi beholde nettverkets tradisjon om FOU som viktig faglig orienteringspunkt for samlingen. Et naturlig førstevalg var å invitere IDEAs president Larry O'Farrell som hovedforedragsholder. Hans bakgrunn som koordinator av forskernettverket IDEANET og hans artikler om dramaforskning i flere internasjonale tidsskrift, ga oss idéen om å be ham forelese om hva aktuell forskning på feltet betyr sett fra hans ståsted. De tre andre foreleserne ble invitert som representanter fra IDEAs internasjonale kongresskomité. Dette er en komité med rådgivende funksjon for oss som arrangører av IDEA Særlig to av representantene i denne komitéen har vi fått mye god hjelp fra mht. oversettelser for IDEA 2001: informasjonsbrosjyrer og verdenskongressens hjemmesider. Når det viste seg at vi kunne få besøk av Francine Chaîné fra fransk Kanada og Liliana Galván fra spansktalende Peru, syntes vi det ville være spennende å be dem formidle til det norske dramamiljøet FOU-prosjekter fra sine respektive miljøer. Sammen med Beatriz Cabral fra Brasil, som med sin portugisiske språkkontekst representerer forbindelsen til IDEAs startpunkt i Portugal, mente vi å kunne formidle til nettverket et spekter av eksempler på internasjonal forskning og utviklingsarbeid, ut i fra fire ganske ulike kulturelle ståsteder. Denne muligheten til å speile IDEAs sammensetning av ulike akademiske og geografiske kulturer var vår motivasjon for valget av hovedforelesere. Larry O'Farrell er professor ved dramautdanningen på Queens University, i Kingston, Ontario i Kanada. Ved Queens er han også koordinator av videreutdanningen for lærere. O'Farrell har publisert mange artikler om drama/teaterutdanning, og hans siste bok er Education and the Art of Drama. Nylig var han nestleder for to større læreplansutviklingsprosjekter i Kanada. Larry O'Farrell er IDEAs president, valgt i Kenya i Han har tidligere hatt både president- og visepresidentverv i drama & utdanningsorganisasjoner i Kanada og USA. Han har forelest på konferanser i mange land på fem kontinenter. Francine Chaîné er 1. amanuensis ved Université Laval, i Quebec, Quebec i Kanada. Hun underviser i drama for lærerstudenter innenfor kunstutdanning, men også for hovedfagsstudenter knyttet til kunstutdanningsprogram. Hun arbeider dessuten med drama som gjør bruk av kunst&håndverksfag for barn og med tverrfaglige kunstfagsprosjekter. Liliana Galván er kunstner og utdanningspsykolog og leder for Quality in Education Department ved Peruvian University for Applied Sciences i Lima, Peru. Siden 1974 har hun arbeidet med barn og unge i et utdanningsprosjekt for integrering av kunstfag (Integrarte). Prosjektets mål er å stimulere estetikk, kreativitet og personlig utvikling gjennom kunstfag. Hun har nylig skrevet bok om kreativitet og er opptatt av dramametodikk og kollektiv læring. Hun underviser ansatte ved sitt fakultet i kreativ og aktiv læring, og er kunstnerisk leder for universitetets Ung Teatergruppe. Beatriz Cabral underviser i drama og teater ved Federal and State Universities of Santa Catarina på Florianópolis i Brasil. Hun har sin doktorgrad i drama fra University of Central England (Birmingham), og har opprettet et forskningssamarbeid med University of Exeter. Hun har siden 1994 vært opptatt av FOU knyttet til drama brukt på tvers av læreplanen, og drama som et middel til å skape kulturell og politisk bevissthet i underpriveligerte miljøer i Brasil. Hun har fungert som rådgiver for lokale og nasjonale utdanningskontorer. 5

6 Guest lecturer Larry O Farrell: Issues and Models in Drama/Theatre and Education Research Lawrence O'Farrell Faculty of Education Queen's University Kingston, Canada Keynote Address Presented at the Norwegian National National Drama Teaching Network Seminar Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway 2000 Issues Thirty years ago, when I began to work in drama/theatre and education, very little formal research had been done in the field. I certainly wasn t aware of any nor were any of the colleagues with whom I worked closely. We simply taught drama in the way that we had learned from our own teachers and we supplemented this knowledge by creative experimentation of our own. Eventually, however, we found ourselves facing questions that could not be answered on the basis of traditional practice, alone. There were theoretical questions for which there were no readymade answers. There were questions about whether drama/theatre was really as effective an educational tool as we claimed it was. As competing approaches to teaching drama came to our attention, there were also questions about what drama/theatre education really was and how we could make our work accountable to school administrators and other decision makers. And we couldn t even begin to answer any of these questions without undertaking some form of organized research. In the intervening decades, drama/theatre educators around the world have made significant efforts to answer some of the questions that we have been facing, in a methodical way. In the course of this presentation, I will describe some examples of studies that have been completed, and I will discuss the methods researchers have found particularly useful in researching drama/theatre education. But, I would like to begin by looking at some of the difficulties that face us as we attempt to compare the research we have done in different parts of our globe. I recently had the opportunity to attend the third International Drama in Education Research Institute (IDIERI) at Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio. At one open session, there was considerable discussion on the topic of a possible common vocabulary for drama/theatre and education. The issue was raised by my esteemed colleague John Somers of the University of Exeter who had raised the same point on a number of previous occasions. This discussion revolved around the following connundrum. Teachers of drama/theatre and education need to be able to discuss their work with one another and researchers need to be able to compare the results of their work. However, the terminology in our field is so ideosyncratic and inconsistent that it is almost impossible to compare similar work because it is described using a variety of different terms. To give a hypothetical example, let us imagine that one researcher does a study of creative dramatics (a term used widely in the United States) and another does a study of process drama (a term that originated in Australia). How valid would a comparison of these two studies be if the dramatic learning they describe is defined by two significantly different sets of criteria? The actual dramatic activities might be similar but the terminology interferes with a full understanding of the significance of the studies. The proposal made by Professor Somers was that drama educators from several countries collaborate on the creation of a common set of terms to describe aspects of drama/theatre education so that researchers will better be able to focus and compare their work. While I agree that carefully defined terms may be of assistance to researchers in our 6

7 field, I am not sure that the problem of international comparisons of research will be entirely solved in this way. This is because the purpose and methods of research are, themselves, cultural constructs. Even if we could agree on a common set of terms, our ideas about how we ought to go about researching our field are rooted in our national and regional traditions of research. I am reminded of the social construction behind research methods when I speak with a respected colleague at Queen s University about the difficulties she frequently experiences when publishing research papers in North America. Because she was educated in France, her ideas about what constitutes credible research writing are strongly influenced by the French academic tradition. This means that she feels compelled to write relatively discursive papers in which the work of many authorities is cited even when this work has only a marginal bearing on the topic of the research. North American editors have difficulty accepting this discursive approach because the North American academic tradition requires a tightly focussed argument, one that is narrowly clinical rather than broadly illustrative. Clearly, the scholarly cultures of these two parts of the world are radically different and my colleague is often the victim of intolerance between the two. Another example that comes to mind is a paper I heard, many years ago when I was a young lecturer. The talk was given by Northrup Frye, perhaps Canada s most eminent scholar, a literary critic of international repute. The lecture he gave was wide-ranging, comprehensive and profound. In the course of an hour, he touched on matters of the intellect, the heart and the soul. I felt deeply fortunate to be able to hear this great man speak as he was nearing the conclusion of his long and illustrious career. At the end of the paper, however, I was surprised to find myself wondering what had been the point of the talk. As a member of a new and more clinical generation of scholars, I was discomforted by the fact that Professor Frye didn t bring his vast array of images and ideas to bear on one, predominant, argument. I realized that such a reductionist objective had never been in the speaker s mind. He had been speaking in the traditions of British literary criticism which required his lecture to be as much a work of art as the literature he was describing. Unlike my colleague from France, he did not feel obliged to cite a lot of other scholars, but he did, aparently, find it necessary and desireable to present a wide range of vivid imagery from the works of great authors. In particular, I recall that several of his images were taken from the bible. These images and his remarks about them were then left to interact in the reflective memory of the listener with no need for a simplistic summary. The point I am making, here, is that my way of thinking about research in drama/theatre and education is highly influenced by recent, North American ideas about research. I have made a point of learning as much as I can about research traditions in other countries and I am confident that we can find ways of sharing our research findings and collaborating on international projects. But, we will not be successful if, in attempting to do so, we cannot recognize our own biases. So, I encourage you to keep in mind that, even when I talk about research done outside of North America, I am still speaking from a North American perspective, one that I hope has been informed by the work I have encountered internationally. The topic of my presentation is Issues and Models in Drama/theatre and Education Research. I propose to begin with a consideration of some of the issues. Indeed, I have already raised two important issues in my introduction - the question of terminology and the risk of cultural bias. I will now try to describe, from a North American perspective, what research in our field appears to be about and what methods we tend to favour. This discussion will include brief illustrations from the work of a variety of researchers. I will pay particular attention to models of case study research. This is an approach that has become increasingly popular among our colleagues in Canada, the United States, Australia, the UK and elsewhere. In trying to describe the kind of research that has been done in our field, I would like to address three questions which I consider to be of paramount importance to drama education researchers at the present time. In the first place, we must give our attention to the question of what we mean by research in our field. My experience in working with graduate students at Queen's University and with my colleagues in other centres has convinced me that, as a community, we are not altogether clear what we think we are getting into when we undertake to do research. We are prone to making unsupported assumptions which can mislead us and even undermine the value of our studies. 7

8 Because the field is so small, we have to ask what we can learn from research conducted both within our national borders and abroad. Research conducted in our own regional settings will provide us with insights into the theory and practice of drama education in a context with which we can all identify. Research conducted in other countries will enrich those insights while, at the same time, challenging some of the principles which underlie our national educational practices. It is also important to ask how we can hope to communicate our own research to colleagues who may be able to benefit from it, while, at the same time, gaining access to the research of our colleagues in other countries. As educators, we may be doomed to perpetually reinventing the wheel. It can be argued that discovery and rediscovery are the essence of education. However, as researchers, we try to build a body of knowledge in such a way that each new study is based on the accrued evidence of its predecessors. To begin as if no previous studies had ever been attempted would be to waste valuable resources and to risk producing undigested or inaccurate information. What is Research? I was privileged to chair a meeting at the first world congress of the International Drama and Education Association (I.D.E.A.) in Porto, Portugal in July of At this meeting, an assembly of drama education researchers from several countries shared their unique points of view and began the search for a common understanding. Perhaps what impressed me most about this discussion was the great diversity in how delegates looked at research. I quickly came to realize that the understanding I had cultivated over a number of years, was thoroughly North American - by no means universal as I had assumed. In some cases, the diversity resulted primarily from variety in topics and methods of research. Other differences seemed to reflect a profound distrust of theoretical analysis when applied to practical imperatives. For example, researchers in France were preoccupied with finding ways in which theatre artists and teachers could work in partnership. This preoccupation had been brought about by a government decision to send actors and other theatre artists into schools to work with teachers in establishing theatre education programs. Although I would have classified the work as "action research", the French delegate was insistent that this kind of project had to be regarded as a new, non-traditional form of research. On the one hand, the work could be seen as experimental. On the other, it appeared thoroughly pragmatic, unencumbered by theoretical considerations. In spite of this divergence of thought, the delegates were able to agree on a number of recommendations to guide the continuing work of the international working party on research. These included the following. To avoid adopting a hierarchical position, research should be about making sense of our practices in our own contexts. We need mentors, collegial support and references. We also need research which results in action. Some of this action will be non-verbal in nature. It is inevitable that we will use language to describe what we do - but let's not forget the non-verbal dimensions and look for ways to record these. It is important that we don't exclude some countries because they are undeveloped in presenting material. We need to find a balance - third world countries are not represented here. We need to listen to countries who are developing different approaches to us. I.D.E.A. 1992, Minutes of Research Meeting Clearly, the international group was at pains to adopt a view of research which was inclusive of many kinds of study and a range of reporting methods, some of which might prove to be highly unorthodox. An instructive contrast to this non-judgemental attitude is provided by a document which was drafted by the research committee of the American Alliance for Theatre and Education (A.A.T.E.) and which has served as an informal guide to the field of research in North America. Intended for application within the United States and Canada hands of a Canadian this position paper was entitled "Standards For Research in Drama/Theatre and Education". I find it to be an extremely valuable guideline in part because, like the recommendations of the 8

9 international group, it tries to be inclusive, and in part because, notwithstanding this openness, it also aims to provide a rigorous framework within which researchers can validate their work. This paper states that the major purpose of research in drama/ theatre education is "to increase and enhance the knowledge, aesthetic and moral bases of the field." It identifies five specific categories through which this aim is accomplished. These are: 1. To develop theory 2. To develop rigorous, appropriate methodology 3. To generate knowledge which can inform artistic and educational practice 4. To link drama/theatre research to the larger context of knowledge from related fields 5. To potentially provide a basis for advocacy A.A.T.E. 1993, excerpted p. 3-4 I think the chief difference between the AATE draft document and the recommendations of the IDEA group lies in these two interdependent but discrete goals. The purpose of research in the AATE standards paper is, primarily, to generate knowledge. A major purpose of research in the IDEA recommendations is to promote action. Of course, action based on inadequate knowledge can lead to counter-productive results, just as knowledge which offers no prospects for future action may be dismissed as trivial or irrelevant. The two perspectives, when brought together are perhaps the most effective tool at our disposal for improving our work with young people and for clearing a space for drama at the heart of education. The AATE standards paper attempts to be comprehensive in its description of research in our field, identifying appropriate research settings and possible areas of research including theatre production for young audiences, literary and historical texts, informal drama in education, related disciplines, related dramatic genres and special populations. It also provides criteria for exemplary research to aid in evaluating individual and collaborative research, as well as ethical standards and a list of qualities considered desirable in a researcher. The section that I find particularly significant deals with research methods. The paper describes four possible research methodologies which are used in the investigation of topics in drama/theatre education. These categories deserve serious scrutiny because, imperfect though they may be, they offer the most authoritative answer I have found in print to the question "what is research" in drama and education. 1. Naturalistic or Qualitative Methodologies Theories emerge from collected data, include action analyses, ethnography, case studies, analysis of audio/video tapes, thick descriptions. This approach can also include production and program analyses and evaluations. A.A.T.E. 1993, p. 3 The roots of qualitative research lie in the fields of anthropology and sociology. Researchers investigating human cultures, whether it be the culture of an isolated, non-western society or the culture of a classroom, have developed a systematic approach to observation and interpretation of behaviour that can achieve rigour in spite of the obvious risks of subjectivity and bias. Robert Bogdan and Sari Knopp Biklen (1982) have identified five essential characteristics of qualitative research. It "has the natural setting as the direct source of data and the researcher is the key instrument." (p. 27) It is descriptive and researchers are "concerned with process rather than simply with outcomes or products". (p. 28) "Qualitative researchers tend to analyze their data inductively." (p. 29) This means that, rather than trying to prove predetermined hypotheses, they look for theory to emerge from the data as it is being gathered. And, finally, "'Meaning' is of essential concern to the qualitative approach." (p. 29) How participants interpret their experience is an indispensable element in the analysis of data and the generation of theory. An award-winning example of qualitative, case-study research is Laura A. McCammon's study, "Teamwork is Not Just a Word: Factors Disrupting a Developmental Group of Theatre Teachers" (McCammon 1994). McCammon tells the story of a group of four theatre teachers in a magnet, secondary, theatre program whose efforts to collaborate as an effective team over the course of a school year failed miserably. Although she may have preferred her case to tell the story of a more successful collective, one that might serve as a model for other groups, the 9

10 researcher could not ignore the data she had collected showing the gradual disintegration of the working group. As a result, her narrative became a cautionary tale rather than a success story. McCammon collected her data at length using a variety of indicators. She observed teachers' meetings, conversations between teachers, theatre lessons, rehearsals, performances and field trips over a period of 93 days. She took extensive field notes and coded them to determine the frequency and relative collegiality of teacher talk. She drew tentative conclusions and sought evidence to confirm or disconfirm these assertions. She interviewed her subjects and examined school documents. She discussed early drafts of her research report with the teachers to verify her analysis. As a result of this exhaustive documentation and the transparency of her reasoning, McCammon is able to tell her story in a convincing way and to make recommendations that may allow other groups to avoid the discouraging failure of this collaborative effort. To some extent, McCammon was able to analyze the case with a high degree of objectivity because she was a thirdparty researcher, empathetic to the deteriorating situation but personally unaffected by the unresolved conflicts. This does not mean, however, that one can only do an effective case study in someone else's classroom. An excellent example of teacher as researcher is Philip M. Taylor whose study "Our 'Adventure of Experiencing': Reflective Practice and Drama Research" was awarded the 1994 AATE Research Award, the same distinction achieved by McCammon's study the previous year. Taylor's story concerns the experience that he and a group of seventh graders shared when he introduced a drama structure into the social studies curriculum. In this instance, the teacher is one of the subjects of his own research. Taylor's story carries an authority and credibility that is the result of the same kind of thoroughness of method and clarity of analysis that characterized McCammon's work. Taylor is able to identify five cycles in the drama structure that illustrate a number of concerns of importance to the reflective practitioner. These are a "concern with static strategies which would launch the drama structure," a " concern with social studies pedagogy," a "concern with introducing a dilemma," a "concern with a balanced historical perspective," and a "concern with closure." (Taylor 1995, 36-39) He draws these issues out of a mass of documentation including 1000 pages of typed, log entries and 100 hours of catalogued video and audio tape. 2. Quantitative Methodologies Theories are tested by pre-designed studies, include quantitative descriptions and analyses of data produced by surveys and experimental designs. Content analysis, interaction analysis of productions and programs, and ethnoscientific analysis are also included under the rubric of quantitative research. A.A.T.E. 1993, p. 3 If qualitative research is often defined in terms of what it is not - not empirical, not driven by hypotheses, not structured along predetermined lines - this is because conventional thinking about research has been dominated by the principles of quantitative research. These principles are focused on the proving or disproving of hypotheses through experimental procedures. Paul D. Leedy (1989) describes "true experimental designs" as evidencing a high degree of "control and refinement and a greater insurance of both internal and external validity." (p. 222) Internal validity provides assurance that the experimental treatment really has made a difference in the experiment. External validity assures that the experiment is generalizable. Experimental designs which achieve both internal and external validity are rare in research that attempts to analyze the interaction between human beings who are engaged in artistic creation and perception. However, a small number of quantitative studies have been carried out in our field and these have yielded very promising results. For example, an early study by Kathie Vitz (1984) demonstrates how quantitative research can be useful in the field of drama education. Vitz set up an experiment to test her hypothesis that drama would be an effective method for promoting facility in English as a second language (ESL) among young children. A randomly selected group of children participated in 22 drama sessions over an eight-week period while children in a control group were engaged in a standard audio-lingual ESL program. A pre-test and a post-test of the children's facility in English indicated that the drama group experienced significantly greater improvement than the control group in total verbal output. More recently, research by Rey E. de la Cruz et al (1998) followed a similar pattern in demonstrating that creative drama can be effective in improving the oral language skills of children with learning disabilities. Standardized tests 10

11 were used to determine the extent to which participation in drama lessons aided these children. This study showed that the drama program had been at least as effective as a traditional curriculum for social and oral language skills development. Students who participated in drama exceeded the progress of members of the control group in the development of social skills. 3. Literary and Historical Analyses New theories are synthesised from analyses of previous publications and existing scholarship or from analyses of productions on stage or in the media, include dramaturgy, semiotic and linguistic studies, analysis in terms of existing theory (deconstruction theory, for example), literary criticism, and translation. A.A.T.E. 1993, p. 3 The historical researcher undertakes to find, analyze and interpret documentary evidence in an effort to arrive at a comprehensive and authentic understanding of people, events and ideas in the past. An intriguing example from the Netherlands is a study by Jacques de Vrooman (1994) on drama in school. De Vrooman describes historical developments in educational drama in the Netherlands with a particular emphasis on secondary education. Beginning with the humanist Latin school of the sixteenth century, he shows how drama "represented the heart of the humanist curriculum: Latin rhetoric." (p. 471) Later, he traces the development of drama in education through the twentieth century from the reforms of progressive educators in the 1920's and the Dutch tradition of "lekespel" (p. 471) or modern passion plays that spanned the period from the 1920's to the 1950's to the developmental drama of the 1950's through the 1970's. He goes on to address the emergence of drama as a learning medium in the 1970's and the focus on discipline oriented theatre training since the 1980's. De Vrooman placed these developments in a theoretical framework, analyzing them in the light of an historical sociological study by Matthijssen (1982). This study defined a rationality as "a rule system for the organization of behaviour, its interpretation in terms of true-untrue and its evaluation in terms of correct-incorrect." (de Vrooman, p. 572) It identified four rationalities, three of which appeared to have some bearing on the purpose and nature of educational drama in different historical periods although de Vrooman concluded that rationalities normally do not appear in a pure form. Drama in humanist education of the Renaissance reflected a religious-literary rationality. Technical rationality had a bearing on the dramatic paedagogy of reformers early in the twentieth century. And social rationality was associated with developmental drama and other emancipatory approaches which appeared late in the century. 4. Philosophical Studies Principles are teased out from operational and accepted definitions to provide theoretical perspectives. This includes work in the epistemological, moral, and aesthetic domains and in the relationship between these domains. A.A.T.E. 1993, p. 3 The decision by authors of the A.A.T.E. document to combine Literary and Historical research in a single category while, at the same time, isolating Philosophical research is somewhat problematical. Historical and Philosophical studies are generally identified in terms of their objectives, whereas Literary research is defined more in terms of its methods. It can even be argued that Literary research is a subcategory of Philosophical studies. Nevertheless, the emphasis which Philosophical research places on the rational examination of ideas entitles it to separate consideration, in spite of any duplication of methods or purposes with other forms of research. An example of Canadian work in this field can be found in the publications of Sharon Bailin. One article (1993) takes a critical look at the claim by some drama educators that "it is the undergoing of the experience of drama itself that... [is] of value in engendering the kinds of understandings at issue." (p. 95) Bailin argues that there is no evidence that unguided improvisations will automatically enhance understanding and that teacher-directed improvisations may inculcate particular ideological beliefs rather than leading to genuine insight into an issue. Reflection outside of the drama is needed to prevent manipulation of student ideas by the teacher and the need for this kind of extra-dramatic process undermines the claim that spontaneous drama is inherently educational. Balin's critical assessment of the claims of drama educators is based on literary sources. The ideas found in these sources are dealt with using a discursive technique. 11

12 The A.A.T.E. standards give a wide scope for researchers in drama and education within the orthodox view that the purpose of research is to generate knowledge (however defined). The idea that this knowledge can lead to change may be implicit in this description (at least to the extent that practice may be informed by new knowledge), but it is certainly not explicit. What Can We Learn? In its discussion of research methods and areas of study, the AATE document goes a long way toward indicating what we can hope to learn from research in drama and education. In a paper presented at the Porto conference, (O'Farrell, 1993) I listed a number of broad questions which have been frequently asked by researchers in North America. These included the following. "What is going on in the field?" Researchers asking this question wanted to know how many people were teaching drama, to what grade or age level, and where. They also wanted to know who was conducting research and the kind of research being undertaken. "How did drama in education develop?" This question was asked by researchers interested in historical issues. "How do specific drama methods work?" Researchers interested in this topic were committed to analyzing identifiable aspects of drama practice to clarify the nature of drama in education. "What actually goes on in educational drama?" This question motivated some researchers to look directly into the drama classroom using qualitative methods. "Does drama actually teach anything?" Researchers following this line of inquiry were committed to demonstrating conclusively that drama does what its proponents say it does, or to disproving what may be unfounded and misleading claims. The extent of this list shows that Canadian and American researchers have begun to learn a great deal through research. They have responded to theoretical and pragmatic needs, using a variety of methods. To a large extent, their interests have been similar to those of their colleagues working in other countries. This means that international communication can do much to encourage and guide the work of Canadian researchers. The possibility also exists that researchers can become involved in collaborative, international studies through which the field of drama and education can be enhanced on a global level. Perhaps it is too early to map out the direction such a collaborative study might take. However, discussions in Porto and subsequent communication among the participants has suggested to me that one fruitful approach would see researchers using qualitative methods to study representative drama education programs in a number of unique cultural and geographic settings. This would produce a series of in-depth case studies. These case studies could be placed in context during a second phase of the research in which drama educators in several other countries would be asked to respond to a questionnaire based on issues arising from the case studies. The results of the research would be disseminated through written reports and videotapes. I believe that research of this kind would reveal the creative diversity inherent in drama education around the world while, at the same time, identifying common elements which reflect the human essence of this universal art form. I am convinced that research which honours the integrity of aesthetic expression in non-western cultures as well as in pluralistic Western society will enhance drama education and promote international and intercultural understanding. It will strengthen curricula in drama and the arts. It will provide a framework within which developing countries may revitalize traditional dramatic forms while, at the same time, adapting Western forms to suit their own needs. How Can We Communicate Research? Researchers have already learned much through their studies and they continue to push forward the frontiers of knowledge in our field. Unfortunately, the fruits of their labour often go unrecognized - not only by practitioners who have little opportunity to attend international conferences or even national events like this one, but also by fellow researchers who have difficulty gaining access to research reports (particularly those which have gone unpublished or which have been published in a language other than their own). 12

13 A number of scholarly journals are actively publishing research articles on drama and education in various parts of the globe. One source of difficulty for even the most determined researcher who searches for these journals using the best available print and electronic storage facilities is the negligence of publishing organizations in failing to register their publications with information clearing centres. This means that scores of valuable articles have been effectively lost to the world community of researchers because they do not appear in any directory. I am happy to report that this problem is gradually being addressed as associations and occasional publishers learn to properly register their products and clearly, there is a role for an international organization like I.D.E.A. to play in providing a forum through which titles of publications and lists of their contents can be shared across national borders. To an increasing extent, the world is turning to the electronic media to facilitate the kind of communication that will allow researchers to locate and read one another's work. A number of organizations (including IDEA) have developed websites as electronic sources of information. In a recent proposal that was received enthusiastically by the General Council of IDEA, Publications Director John O Toole recommended establishing a web-based journal that would be easily accessible to drama educators everywhere. At the same time, IDEA is joining its international sisters associations in Music and Visual Art Education in proposing a UNESCO funded project entitled My Culture is... an Arts Educational Project. We are working to create a web-based teacher resource for the arts in education that will enhance educational practices around the world. For several years, now, international researchers have been joined by a listserve system that allows messages to be distributed to colleagues around the globe, instantly. This listserve, entitled IDEANET, is used primarily to distribute notices concerning upcoming conferences and seminars. Other listserve groups such as Dramawest, hosted in Australia, are used for discussions about specific drama/theatre education practices. One innovative and effective tool that drama/theatre and education researchers have begun to use in reporting their qualitative, case study research is the art of the theatre. Perhaps, as theatre specialists, we might have turned to our own art form much sooner than we did. Staged readings of data from interviews have been given at conferences for a number of years. However, the performing of entire plays based on research is relatively new in our field. One outstanding example is a performance of «Maybe Someday, if I m Famous... an Ethnographic Performance Text» (Saldaña 1998) that was presented by Johnny Saldaña at the second IDIERI conference in Victoria, Canada in The research behind this performance was a case study intended as a follow-up to a significant and complex longitudinal study that followed a single group of children as they progressed from kindergarten through the sixth grade. The longitudinal research was conducted by the department of theatre at Arizona State University. A qualitative component of the larger study was a series of interviews with the children to determine their interest in theatre. Dr. Saldaña was interested in learning more about the development of one particular young man who had continued to show a special interest in theatre during his high school years, after data collection for the longitudinal study was completed. The researcher decided that it would be appropriate to present a synthesis of this case study in the form of a theatre piece. He crafted his ethnographic playscript by editing excerpts from his interviews with the student, his family and his theatre teacher with selected passages from his own field notes. This script was then performed in Arizona and later at the Victoria institute by Saldaña and colleagues from his department. A surprise conclusion to the performance was a revelation that the actor playing Barry (the subject of the study) was, in fact, Barry, himself. Saldaña (1999) acknowledges that the process of writing an ethnodrama of this kind poses challenges not faced by a conventional playwright, but he asserts that the performance text is a powerful way to bring qualitative data to life. Summary In addressing the question of what research means to drama educators, I have distinguished between a North American perspective in which a comprehensive description of research was grounded in an orthodox concept of research as the generation of knowledge, on the one hand, and, on the other, an international perspective in which alternative approaches to research and reporting methods was encouraged. In several countries, a variety of research methodologies were already being used. 13

14 I found that much can be learned through research which could benefit the field of drama and education. Researchers have been active in addressing a wide range of topics. The potential for international collaboration on research was raised. One suggested project would see colleagues in various countries using humanistic methods to describe case studies. The problem of how we can effectively communicate research in the face of language barriers and a widespread lack of information about research publications, led to a discussion of the advantages offered by electronic mail and storage facilities. Of particular interest was the use of ethnographic performance texts to present case study research. In conclusion, I would like to observe that, although research in our field is relatively new, significant advances have already been made. As the research community begins to make an impression on drama education, researchers can derive satisfaction from the fact that we have assumed a leadership role in this exciting and valuable new development. Literature Cited American Alliance for Theatre and Education. :"Standards for Research in Drama/Theatre and Education", draft version. Unpublished, Bailin, Sharon. "Drama as Experience: A Critical View" in Canadian Journal of Education. 18.2: , Bogdan, Robert C. and Biklen, Sari Knopp. Qualitative Research For Education: An Introduction and Methods. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Inc., to Theory de la Cruz, Rey E., Lian, Ming-Gon John, and Morreau, Lanny E. The Effects of Creative Drama on Social and Oral Language Skills of Children with Learning Disabilities. In Youth Theatre Journal, 1998 (12). de Vrooman, Jacques. Toneel op School (Drama in School). Nijmegen, the Netherlands: Universitair Publikatiebureau KUN, International Drama and Education Association. "Minutes of Research Meeting". Unpublished, Leedy, Paul D. Practical Research: Planning and Design. 4th ed. New York: Macmillan, Matthijssen, M. De elite en de mythe. Een sociologische analyse van de strijd om Deventer, The Netherlands: onderwijsverandereing. McCammon, Laura A. "Teamwork is Not Just a Word: Factors Disrupting Group of Theatre Teachers" in Youth Theatre Journal, 1994, 8 (3) 3-9 the Development of a Departmental O'Farrell Lawrence. "Enhancing the Practice of Drama in Education Through Research", in Youth Journal, 7.4: 25-30, Theatre Saldaña, Johnny. «Maybe Someday, if I m Famous... an Ethnographic Performance Text,» in the Research of Practice, The Practice of Research, (Ed. Juliana Saxton and Carole Miller). Victoria, B.C.: IDEA Publications, 1998 (89-109) Saldaña, Johnny. «Playwriting with Data: Ethnographic Performance Texts,» in Youth Theatre Journal, 1999,

15 Taylor, Philip M. (1995) "Our 'Adventure of Experiencing': Reflective Practice and Drama Research" in Youth Theatre Journal, Vitz, Kathie. "The Effects of Creative Drama in English as a Second Language." Children's 33.2: 23-26, Theatre Review 15

16 Guest lecturer Francine Chaîné: Enter the Image as Alice Francine Chaîné Ph.D. Associate Professor Ecole des arts visuels Faculte d'aménagement, d'architecture et des arts visuels Université Laval Edifice La Fabrique Québec, Qc. G1K 7P4 Canada Tel : # 2853 Fax : Francine Chaîné is an associate professor at the Université Laval, Québec. She teaches Drama Education to undergraduate students in Art Education and also to master degree students in Art Program. She is involved with drama using art works for children and also multidisciplinary art works. 16

17 Enter the Image as Alice I wish I could tell you half the things Alice used to say, beginning with her favourite phrase Let s pretend. She had quite a long argument with her sister only the day before all because Alice had begun with Let s pretend we re kings and queens; and her sister, who liked being very exact, had argued that they couldn t, because there were only two of them, and Alice had been reduced at last to say Well, you can be one of them, then, and I ll be all the rest. (Lewis Carroll, pp ) Here we are almost at the beginning of Through the Looking Glass, at the point when Alice asks her sister to accompany her as she enters the world of fiction. Later on in the story, she makes the same request of her cat who, it goes without saying, doesn t react at all. Well before going through the looking glass, Alice enters a fictional world and believes in its characters, all the while asking for the same suspension of disbelief from those around her. Following in Alice s footsteps, young children too can enter a fictional universe and manage, almost naturally, to pretend, in other words, to make believe, or to think as if. We can imagine that the character of Alice is about five years old 1 when we meet her; that is, she s kindergarten age. These little men and women, who, as seriously as could be, get down to playing by inventing characters and situations, never cease to amaze us with their unbridled imaginations and startling observations. We ve all encountered just such tiny folk in drama classes and workshops, a world made up of experts in the art of fiction. We ve witnessed their boldness; they ve astonished us and, as it were, surpassed us during the year we ve spent together at school. We ve offered them playing spaces that they ve taken over with a great deal of enthusiasm and reinvented in their own image. We propose to share with you a singular artistic experience that took place in two kindergarten classes in Quebec City (Canada), where works of art were used for purposes of improvisations. For those of us involved, this process constituted a métissage, or cross-pollination 2 of artistic forms, in other words, a meeting of culture and the arts, and, above all, a great game of through the looking glass played with experts in fiction and invention. In the pages that follow, we will provide a summary of this exploratory research carried out in two pre-school classes that we visited over a one-year period. 3 We will discuss 1- the importance of the arts in the pre-school system; 2- we will reflect upon five-year-old children and their reaction to improvisation ; 3- we will describe the research project entitled Art Works at Play; 4- we will present the impact of the project within the milieu; and 5- we will conclude by reflecting upon the possibility of transposing this experience into the university-level training of drama instructors. 1 Lewis Carroll had to rejuvenate Alice when he wrote Through the Looking Glass. In 1868, when he began to write the book, Alice Liddell, upon whom the character is based, was 16 years old. 2 We have borrowed this expression from Robert Lepage, who is currently presenting an exhibit entitled Métissage at Quebec City s Museum of Civilization; the exhibit demonstrates artistic cross-pollination. We prefer this term to multi-disciplinarity because it suggests a meeting of culture and the arts. 3 The research project took place during the school year at the Du Rocher school in Rimouski, Quebec, Canada. 17

18 The Place of the Arts in the Pre-School System In Quebec, the arts have a significant foothold in the pre-school system; the four artistic disciplines, i.e. drama, visual art, dance and music, are generally taught by classroom teachers and sometimes by specialists in the respective field. The pre-school teaching program is designed to encourage teachers to adopt an interdisciplinary approach, or at least to establish links among the various subjects, whether or not they are of an artistic nature. The kindergarten classroom, which is more often than not an open area, is set up to encourage the children to move around. The children s activities unfold in a series of workshops, taking place from the arts corner to the costume space, and including the science area, as well as spaces reserved for puppets, reading, and so on. Naturally, the five-year olds act out 1- familiar stories such as Little Red Riding Hood, and 2- games that they invent among themselves, such as playing school before they even start going there or pretending to be fire fighters, etc.. 3- Some children perform monologues with bears and dolls. They talk to the toys and also lend them their own voices. Accompanied by competent teachers who are sensitive to all things artistic, pre-school children can easily move from visual art to music, then do a dance or invent a improvisation complete with a whole cast of characters. Indeed, as part of the same project or around the same theme, they can move from body to voice, make drawings to capture what they ve just experienced and then act out the resulting story. In fact, in one way or another, the main thread of this multi-faceted experience is imagination. Five-Year Olds at School Pre-school children have a special relationship with art and with artistic practice. They are fortunate enough to have access to all forms of art since these art forms are part of the school curriculum. Pre-school classes are generally held in elementary schools where children from the first to the sixth grades are also taught. At the beginning of the first levels of elementary school (first to third grade), the number of art classes is reduced to two or three at the most, and the same holds true for the upper levels (fourth to sixth grade). This occurs even though the arts are of crucial importance in terms of personal development, for they facilitate problem-solving, the development of an artistic language and an opening up to others; they also lead to an affirmation of personal experience through play. In the drama, a problem may be solved by the child s finding a way to physically act out a character, react to others by word or action, find a conclusion to a two-person game, etc. As for the dramatic language, in the Quebec curriculum it is made up of the following elements: body, voice, space and objects. The children learn to use these elements as they interact with other players. Here we have a few of the variables that each child has to deal with when entering fictional situations by way of characters. A five-year-old child has already had a certain number of experiences that he or she can draw upon during an artistic activity. For example, all children have a family and friends; they have toys and know certain games; some may have pets or are close to those of a friend; if they live in the city, they know certain parks, and if they come from the country, they re familiar with nature, the tides, etc. To make a long story short, whenever they participate in drama activities, children do so by way of their own experiences, which they in turn compare with those of the other players. Lastly, we should mention that a child who finds him or herself in a situation of dramatic creation is not always the number-one student in the class, for drama, like all the other arts, promotes an entirely different way of thinking. Thus it is that there is not just one way to respond in the improvisation ; on the contrary, there should normally be as many ways to explore a character or a situation as there are players in the class. 3- The Works at Play Project Pre-School Children We have always been fascinated by pre-school students 4 because of the uninhibited way in which they are able to enter a world of fiction; with this in mind, we have attentively observed them in drama workshops, also given our 4 We have participated in a kindergarten research project involving the teaching of oral French through drama (Laval University, Program for the Professional Development of Masters in French). We have also 18

19 firm conviction that we can learn from them and even broaden our understanding of the drama by witnessing their discoveries. We have found that pre-school children, like artists, are able to enter the realm of the imagination. Indeed, they have the same artistic capacity to transform ideas, words, gestures, colours, etc., by using metaphor and acting freely, without constraints. 5 The Works As a means of making contact with the kindergarten students, we chose to use art works as intermediaries for the play component of the project. In fact, the works served as the focal point of improvisation making it possible not only to integrate the cultural dimension but also certain historical elements as well. The hypothesis underlying our introducing these works was that their very presence would open up new avenues for dramatic play by adding a unique artistic dimension. We chose 6 art works, or rather reproductions, 7 that can be found in practically all Quebec kindergartens and are included in the pedagogical kit entitled Imagine and me (1990). 8 Most of the works are of a figurative; however, during our meetings and discussions with teachers, we took the risk of proposing certain non-figurative works and others evoking mythological themes. As a matter of fact, we actually discovered works that recount mythological events involving, for example, Icarus 9 and the Trojan Horse. Making Accomplices Out of Teachers The two teachers 10 involved in the project are both pre-school instructors with training in the dramatic arts. It goes without saying that they were already well informed about the art program and the pedagogical approach underlying it. Among their students, they had, in the past, promoted a cultural dimension through their teaching methods, by bringing in such elements as musical works, visual-arts material and films. Thus they were already comfortable with the process of artistic cross-pollination. Given that they were both pre-school teachers and drama specialists involved directly in the milieu, these instructors provided the project with a concrete dimension since they never lost sight of the realities experienced by five-year olds in a kindergarten classroom. The teachers were in charge of groups of 23 and 20 students respectively. Their two adjacent classrooms were separated by a door. Once in a while, the two groups would participate in shared activities, but this happened relatively rarely. As concerns the drama-activities component of our project, we preferred to propose such activities sat on the committee in charge of drafting the artistic component of the Pre-School Education Program (Quebec Department of Education (MEQ) 1987). 5 In the same vein, we should recall that the surrealist poet André Breton claimed Alice as one of his literary forebears. 6 We should mention that when the time comes to choose a work, it is essential that it truly speak to the person who intends to integrate it into the drama workshop. We re not necessarily talking about love at first sight here, but it would be a shame for the group leader to feel repelled by the work in question; at that point, it would be much better to find a new one. 7 We will use only the terms work or reproduction throughout the text. 8 The kit is designed for pre-school children and includes, along with reproductions of art works, a puppet, music cassettes and an artistic-activities notebook, in other words, material pertaining to all four of the arts. 9 See the Appendix for an example of a drama workshop we put together based on a work depicting the myth of Icarus. 10 Their names are Cécile Thériault and Muriel Lagacé. Ms. Lagacé has a Master s degree in drama education, while Ms. Thériault was a pedagogical consultant specializing in elementary-school art education for over fifteen years at her school board. 19

20 to one class at a time. In this way, we were able to compare the accomplishments of each group, discovering in the process that their perceptions were, indeed, considerably different. This alternating approach served to enrich the content of the workshops, whose similarities and differences we duly compiled. Each of our classroom interventions was subsequently discussed with the two teachers involved. It was agreed that we would conduct one workshop per month during the first term, after which time we would meet with the class once every two months. Thus we ourselves conducted six workshops and the eight others were handled by the teachers who received new suggestions by . After each of our on-site sessions, we compared notes with the teachers who, in this instance, acted as observers of the students in their class. (This, by the way, allowed them to see the children from an outside perspective.) The key elements that the instructors noted were the following: 1- the dramatic success enjoyed by certain children who seemed to have problems with more basic subjects; 2- the fact that some students would play variations upon and go beyond the proposed framework while others would dry up when faced with certain suggested play situations; 3- the degree of collaboration that took place among students during a simple improvisation; 4- the insightful comments made by the children during feedback sessions, etc. What s more, we always discussed the works and the practices used in the workshop in order to see what practical follow-up the teacher could implement after our visit. New ideas for future workshops always emerged from such discussions, and the teachers were also able to identify the works that they themselves appreciated and others that seemed to be logical choices. In addition to assimilating this immediate follow-up concerning the workshops, the teachers also tried out some drama and visual arts ideas that we had compiled and about which we provided written comments (concerning what they themselves had accomplished with their students, etc.). These reports dealt with the difficulties they faced as workshop leaders, with the successful exercises that they would use again unchanged, with the length of the drama activities and how students would go beyond the imposed framework to create new and improved variations upon them, as well as with how the students attitudes concerning this artistic practice changed and developed, etc. The teachers were enriched by the very act of watching their students attentively during the workshops; the latter were sometimes capable of playing with such enthusiasm that exercises would continue much longer than the teachers ever expected. The teachers precious comments helped us to adjust the contents of the workshops and to make them more precise. Afterwards we provided them with a copy of the revised workshops so that they could use what was learned at a later date. To make a long story short, we both held feedback sessions with the teachers immediately after the workshops that we conducted and also collaborated in preparing written summaries of this feedback later on. The Creative Approach The creative approach we have chosen for our drama activity can be divided into three segments: 1- the preparatory phase, made up of activities involving both perception and the exploration of dramatic language, 2- the play period, made up of non-verbal and verbal improvisations, as well as those involving both word and gesture, and 3- a retrospective look at the drama activity, made up of feedback sessions concerning the workshop experience itself. A visual arts activity was sometimes integrated into this final phase, thus making the circle complete since the workshop began by examining an art work and finished with a plastic-arts activity that could be carried out during the workshop or at any other moment. Art works were generally introduced at the beginning of the workshop activity, but it was also possible to present them at the end. Perhaps we should emphasize that in the latter case, the period reserved for feedback was obviously prolonged. However, it is clear that as concerns the practice in question, the art work replaces other sorts of drama props and, from this point of view, the sooner it is shown to the children the better. To illustrate what we mean, here are but a few examples of how the works have been presented to students; the children were asked to: 1- look the work over from top to bottom without paying attention to any details; 2- isolate a section of the work and observe the details; 3- list and establish links among the primary and secondary colours making up the work; 4- pay special attention to the poses adopted by certain characters; 5- describe this character by way of his or her 20

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