Education for climate resistant development

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1 Education for climate resistant development ODW 2013 Name of Norwegian applicant organizations Naturvernforbundet and Natur og Ungdom. Contact person for ODW during the application period Kay Asbjørn Schjørlien, Naturvernforbundet Contact: Countries of Cooperation Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan Thematic framework for the application Youth empowerment, education, climate change, and sustainable development. 1

2 Summary With this program youth will contribute to development of sustainable and climate resistant communities in mountain areas in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, making it possible to continue to live and work in the communities. Mountain communities in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan are today not able to take action in order to lift themselves out of poverty, improve social conditions and take sufficient action on climate adaptation. Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan have done little to contribute to the negative impacts of global climate change, but are among the countries that already are exposed to severe consequences of climate change. Melting glaciers, lack of water resources, increased natural disasters and extreme weather conditions makes the poor mountain population suffer hard from the consequences of climate change. Severe food and water shortages can be regular, according to an Oxfam 1 report from The majority of the population in mountainous areas of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are very poor, and youth are a particularly vulnerable group. The education level has fallen sharply after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and many are deprived of proper education. Both Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are countries of young people, with 70 % of the population under 30 years. Youth suffer from inadequate education and lack of work possibilities. Climate change further deteriorates the social and environmental situation, and the population has neither knowledge nor means to combat climate change consequences. To handle the negative impacts of climate change in the countries it will be crucial to combat poverty and lead the countries into a path of sustainable development. Improved education, enlightenment and increased involvement of youth are important aspects to achieve this. The program will therefore address challenges within climate change and education Youth has a weak social position in the target area. Experience of our partner organizations shows that they are not seen as important, and not given space or possibilities to participate in decision making processes or development of the local communities. Seeing the lack of development in the local communities, we believe youth can make a difference, and be a part of the solution. In order to achieve this youth need resources and possibilities to get engaged, they need improved education, enlightenment and space for increased involvement. Through the ODW-program, youth will be given skilful education on climate change, adaptation measures as well as on practical energy solutions and technologies. They will also learn how to take part in decision-making to improve their own conditions. In this way, youth will become leaders in developing climate resistant and sustainable local communities. 1. Concerning the Norwegian applicant organization 1.1 The applicant organization s experience in working with youth and youth participation Naturvernforbundet is a nationwide, democratic environmental organization, with members, 100 local groups and representation in all counties. Naturvernforbundet is the national chapter of Friends of the Earth International, the world's largest grassroot environmental network. Naturvernforbundet s international activity covers 20 countries, and main scope is energy, climate and 1 2

3 education. A new international strategy from 2011 aims at up-scaling activities within these issues in the former Soviet Union region. Natur og Ungdom is the youth chapter of Naturvernforbundet. Natur og Ungdom has 7000 members and 70 local groups throughout the country. Naturvernforbundet and Natur og Ungdom cooperate closely on topics like organizational development, policy development and lobbying within a wide range of thematic environmental issues and information activities. Natur og Ungdom is member of the board of Naturvernforbundet. Natur og Ungdom do extensive work to mobilize youth in Norway for the environmental cause, and train and motivate youth for participation in direct actions and advocacy work all over the country. At international level Natur og Ungdom has long experience from building local environmental youth organisations in Northwest Russia, and they have also had an active role in building a youth network within Friends of the Earth Europe. Naturvernforbundet works both directly and indirectly in many of the partner countries to strengthen youth organisations and youth engagement and participation in environmental work. Partners are often youth organizations, with active volunteers from years and staff between the age of 18 and 30. Naturvernforbundet support youth networks in Central Asia, and run a big project to support development of Young Volunteers for Environment (JVE; Jeunes Voluntaires pour l environnement), an organisation comprising youth organisations in several African countries. Together with national country partners Naturvernforbundet has always had high focus on involvement of youth in implementation of the project activities; however it is national partners who have the main responsibility for this. Naturvernforbundet runs what is probably the world s biggest educational project on efficient energy use for children and youth between 10 and 16 the SPARE project (School Project on Application of Resources and Energy). Both in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan Naturvernforbundet has implemented SPARE through many years. The main idea of SPARE is education and involvement of youth in solving important environmental problems with impact on local, national and global level. We particularly aim to involve youth in practical energy measures at schools and in local communities. Totally around pupils in 16 countries participate in the project annually, and some teachers receive trainings on energy and climate issues. 1.2 The Norwegian applicant organization s information work The main environmental protection activity of Naturvernforbundet is in Norway. Public outreach and information is a substantial part of this work. Naturvernforbundet is among the organizations with highest visibility in national mass media. Naturvernforbundet has run numerous campaigns with national coverage, for example promoting energy efficiency in buildings, against the distribution of telephone directories to Norwegian households, awareness campaign on toxics in marine environment along the coast, to mention some. Similarly Natur og Ungdom holds wide experience in information work, and the organization is particularly good at organizing and creating attention around specific campaigns. During the ODW campaign both organisations will have all possibilities to cooperate closely with ODW, and will provide the necessary work capacity to do so. We are both nationwide, member based organisations, with national network of local and county groups, and interested members who will participate in the campaign work. Both organisations have an extensive network of voluntary groups 3

4 throughout the country, which can be mobilized and contribute to campaign activities as lectures at schools. Through our local groups we can easily access local media and local population around the campaign. Natur og Ungdom has a secretariat consisting of 33 employees and volunteers. The secretariat of Naturvernforbundet consists of a total of 35 persons, many with highly relevant experience, who will contribute with small or big assignments in connection to the campaign (information, organization, campaign activities and media). The International Department of Naturvernforbundet has a full time staff of 8 persons, all with broad international experience, and with relevant experience also in organization of events, collecting and processing information, development and holding presentations etc. 1.3 The Norwegian applicant organization s role in relation to the local partner organizations Naturvernforbundet has cooperated with both our ODW partner organisations, Little Earth in Tajikistan and BIOM in Kyrgyzstan, since early Naturvernforbundet has also introduced Natur og Ungdom to the region. Little Earth hosted a study tour that was undertaken by Naturvernforbundet, Natur og Ungdom and BIOM in April 2012 as a part of the preparation process of this application. In 2011/2012 Naturvernforbundet and Little Earth participated in Fredskorpset volunteers exchange programme, and the respective participants (a Naturvernforbundet representative in Tajikistan and a Little Earth representative in Oslo), have both been very active in development of the application. Naturvernforbundet will have the main administrative responsibility for coordination, implementation of all program activities and reporting through the period. Natur og Ungdom will participate in and actively backstop the program activities. Jointly we will have responsibility for coordination and aggregation of results from the two countries, as well as for many of the joint activities between the two. Both of the local partner organisations have participated in development of this application. There is broad agreement in both partner organizations that this program is essential to improve the conditions for young people in both countries. Little Earth will plan and implement activities in Tajikistan, in cooperation with Naturvernforbundet, Natur og Ungdom and the program partner in Kyrgyzstan. Little Earth will report on finances and activities to Naturvernforbundet. They will be responsible for establishment of regional youth centres, and plan and coordinate program activities together with the staff of the centres. They will ensure direct involvement of youth and establish necessary cooperation with authorities and other relevant stakeholders. Similarly BIOM will plan and implement activities in Kyrgyzstan, in cooperation with Naturvernforbundet, Natur og Ungdom and with the program partner in Tajikistan. BIOM will report on finances and activities to Naturvernforbundet. They will ensure direct involvement of schools and establish necessary cooperation with authorities and other relevant stakeholders. Both BIOM and Little Earth has very good competence and experience in public outreach and information work, and will make good use of this expertise in order to inform the Kyrgyz and Tajik audience about activities and results of the program. Our partners have also important expertise in educational work; they have both implemented the educational project SPARE at national level through many years. 4

5 Both partner organisations can be considered leading stakeholders on national level when it comes to promotion of sustainable energy solutions for local communities. They have implemented practical projects in several communities through the last years, and are also active in promotion of small scale solutions towards national authorities. With the experience that our partners have developed through the years of cooperation, we consider our partners highly competent to implement their part of the project obligations. They both have broad networks among educational sector, civil society, decision makers, mass media and other relevant stakeholders. Together we have the best possibilities to promote issues around climate change and the situation for youth in these countries. It is an important aspect that both partners are true national grassroots organisations, and not offshoots or part of international organisations. Very often international organisations have different agendas than the national organisations, and they have resources to attract the most competent local personnel, which then are lost from the national organisations. This is an unfortunate situation for local development, and something we want to counteract. Naturvernforbundet and Natur og Ungdom contribute with thematic and organizational knowledge around the key issues in our projects, which are climate justice towards Norwegian youth, and climate change and adaptation, as well as important related issues around energy and environment towards program countries. Mobilization and organizational development will be an important and integrated part of our program, and both organisations have broad experience to contribute within this field. The involvement of Natur og Ungdom will be important in order to show and motivate local youth on how a youth organisation can develop a real standing in the society, that their voice can be heard, and that they can influence on decisions at local and national level. From existing work, we see that the experience Naturvernforbundet bring contributes to increase our key partners competence on these issues, but there is still tremendous work to do in order to reach out to remote mountainous areas with this information and knowledge. Also international understanding around the concept climate justice is only emerging, and Naturvernforbundet and Natur og Ungdom will do an important work together with the local partners to create awareness around this. Gradually, as our partners have gained competence, we have initiated a movement towards policy development and advocacy work on national level, but this is a field where our partners still have a lot to learn, and where both Naturvernforbundet and Natur og Ungdom have extensive experience. Naturvernforbundet will also facilitate a process for developing a monitoring system in close cooperation with the partners, which will make us all better at reporting on results from the planned program. The system will be shared by all the partners and will ensure a higher focus on day to day impact and how the partners can adjust and design program interventions based on what they read from the monitoring data. The monitoring plans used by the partners will also ensure a higher focus on the perspective of the users of the program. 5

6 2. Concerning the thematic framework of the program and the projects Development goal Youth contribute to development of sustainable and climate resistant communities in mountainous areas in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan Outcome Description Indicators Risk factors Youth in the target area has influenced decision making processes in their own communities and is a driving force behind local sustainable development initiatives. - Youth have given timely and adequate proposals in local decision-making processes. -Youth have initiated and lead local sustainable development initiatives within climate change, sustainable energy and environmental protection. - Elements on sustainable energy and climate change issues are integrated into education. -Schools and informal education institutions use knowledge and services provided by local youth groups including the implementation of practical energy efficiency measures. - Increasing conflicts and latent frictions base on clans, nationalities and other aspects make it difficult to operate in some areas of the countries. - Lack of competence and capacity of officials on energy and climate issues. - Authorities do not give priority to environmental education. - Corruption and clans system are widespread and might influence programme activities. - In some regions where program activities are implemented it might be challenging to approach girls and disabled people. 6

7 3.3. Outputs 3.2. Activities Description Indicators Risk factors Activity description 1. Youth in the target area have resources and competence to engage in promotion of sustainable development. -Youth initiate discussion in local communities on climate change, energy and environmental issues. - School administrations, local authorities and decision making bodies invite youth groups to participation in decision making processes. - Youth actively use centers and their resources and services as a tool to increase personal competence and initiate joint activities. - By the end of the program, young people in the targeted areas are capable to give logical explanation on challenges concerning climate change and sustainable development. - Youth use the centers to increase their capability of demonstrating/provide information on how to implement energy efficiency solutions - Due to political and cultural traditions authorities fear strong youth initiatives and activities and don t provide assistance to promote them. - Participation of girls and disabled youth in trainings and other activity are challenging in some areas. 1. Provide facilities for youth engagement: establish 3 local youth centers in each country, with meeting space, internet, library and resources. Will be built/renovated with best available energy efficient solutions 2. Provide trainings for trainers/youth on central topics: - Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction - Practical energy solutions - Democracy development and involvement - Use of modern communication 3.Organize round tables and debates for stakeholders, advocacy and lobby trainings. 2. Youth reach their local societies and region with their message - All schools in the target areas are targeted with information and are invited to activities. - Schools use services and education courses to raise teachers and pupils awareness on climate change, environmental and other related issues. -Local administrations and educational authorities contribute to disseminate information on centers activities to other regions. - School administrations and educational authorities in other regions require information and show interest of the youth centers. -Publications and informational materials on climate change, sustainable energy and climate adaptation for youth are available both in Tajik, - Lack of interest and priority from educational authorities on local and national level. - Language barriers can lead to some misunderstanding within the trainings and publications development. -Participation of young girls in trainings and other activities are challenging in some areas. 1. Development of information materials for youth, local authorities and teachers. 2. Cooperation with various organizations who deal with issues as employment, agriculture, development, aid and empowerment of young people. 3. Cooperation with schools and institutes of higher education, and spread information about planned seminars in centers. 4. Activities and information directed at schools and informal education institutions on sustainable development trainings, exhibitions, excursions and outdoor activities. 6. Consultancies on issues concerning sustainable 7

8 Kyrgyz and Russian languages. - Modules and materials developed within the program wide spread and attract interest from other organizations. development in local societies 7. Facilitate events, presentations and round tables for youth and other local stakeholders; - Engage and involve local citizens as volunteers - Conduct local research and surveys, disseminate results 3. Youth has started and lead initiatives on sustainable development and climate adaptation in locale societies and measures for improved learning environment at local schools -Each center has implemented measures for improved heating and lighting in schools in targeted areas. - Local households have replicated measures presented by trained youth. - New young volunteers are involved in socioenvironmental activities and related programs in local communities. - Youth has replicated and use gained knowledge and practical skills. - Local youth groups are actively involved in campaigns on environmental protection issues. - Schools and local inhabitants approach centers for energy climate adaptation consultancy services. - Due to political and cultural traditions authorities fear strong youth initiatives and activities and don t provide assistance to promote them. -Elders in communities challenge youth initiatives because of locale cultural traditions. 1. Practical trainings for youth on sustainable and alternative technologies and practices - insulation, efficient stoves, sustainable farming, building solar greenhouses, etc. 2. Consultancy services on practical energy measures and improved indoor climate to schools. 3. Development of information materials and instruction manuals. 4. Training of maintenance personnel. 5. Facilitate and support youth initiated pilot projects in local communities, such as energy, climate adaptation and education. 4. Lessons learned and experiences are shared and communicated to youth and other relevant stakeholders in the countries. - Decision makers and interested stakeholders have attended program events -Mass media has published materials on youth initiatives -Youth representatives are invited to participate in regional/national policy processes - Joint youth campaigns and initiatives on climate change, environment protection and related issues. - Due to political and cultural traditions authorities fear strong youth initiatives and activities and don t provide assistance to promote them. - There is a possibility that experienced and qualified young people could prefer better positions outside their local communities. 1. Arrange regional and national youth conferences, round tables, summer camps on the environmental situation of Kyrgyzstan/Tajikistan and climate change. 2. Facilitate conferences and exchange of experience between Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan 3. Involve new stakeholders in running of centers, dissemination of similar activities in other parts of the countries. 8

9 2.3 Who constitute the target group? The main target group of the program will be all youth between the ages of 13 and 19 in the most remote mountain areas in both countries, which are Pamir in Tajikistan, and Naryn and Talas counties of Kyrgyzstan. In order to ensure good coordination and access to national stakeholders we will also implement program activities in the two capitals. The level of education has worsened during the last decades as a result of poor school infrastructure and lack of investment in skilled teachers. Schools lack modern educational facilities, and are often closed during cold winters due to lack of heating. Combined with widespread youth labour in the fields during spring, summer and autumn, this dramatically reduces the educational season. In addition, dropouts are common, especially in the upper secondary school; boys often have to work more in the field as the male population to a large degree migrate to Russia and Kazakhstan for work. Girls increasingly have to marry early and work at home, and are therefore taken out of school. Due to this factors teachers, parents and local societies will be our secondary target group. Governments in both countries provide very limited funds and resources for integration of disabled people. There are both physically and cultural barriers to engage this vulnerable group into the normal life of communities. Within the programme it will be important to take this into consideration while working with target groups. 2.4 Brief situational description of the countries Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are the poorest countries among the 15 former Soviet republics, and they are both ODA eligible. The countries are landlocked and mountainous republics in the eastern part of Central Asia, bordering Kazakhstan to the north, China southeast, Afghanistan south and to the west Uzbekistan. About 90 % of the territory of the countries is on a height of more than 1000m above sea level, from which 40 % is higher than 3000m, with large glaciers and eternal snow. Being poor also under the Soviet Union, the countries have faced severe further setback and subsequent development difficulties after the breakup, and are now on the 116th (Kyrgyzstan) and 122nd (Tajikistan) place on the Human Development Index. 53 % of the population in Tajikistan lives below the poverty line 2, while the figure for Kyrgyzstan is 33,7 % 3. Rural population is approximately 65 % in Kyrgyzstan, and 75 % in Tajikistan. The poor social conditions are worsened by consequences from global warming, and these areas are among the hardest hit already. Melting glaciers, lack of water resources, increased desertification and extreme weather conditions makes the poor mountain population suffer hard from the consequences of climate change. Both Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan face severe barriers for development. The countries are characterized by being headed by small and relatively rich and corrupt elites/clans, which are in charge of most decisions. Lack of democratic traditions and understanding of democratic structures, lack of tradition for participation in decision making processes, lack of transparency, as well as widespread corruption (both ranked on 152 nd place of 164 on 2011 Corruption Perception Index by Transparency International), are all factors that counteract development. Popular involvement has no traditions, and movement towards more democratic societies goes slowly in both countries. 2 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ti.html 3 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kg.html 9

10 Both countries have also experienced civil war and ethnic conflicts, which have had a devastated impact on all walks of life including the socioeconomic aspect, and further divided the population ethnically and geographically. There are added benefit for peace building and conflict prevention in bringing together youth from various parts of these countries. By providing education and training to youth, by youth, in rural mountain areas in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, the applicant organizations want to empower young people to become positive change agents enabled to influence on their future, to promote adaptation to climate change, and to influence towards a more sustainable and democratic future for the rural areas. 2.5 Explain briefly the background for the thematic framework as well as the competence and experience of the Norwegian applicant organization on this theme in the countries of cooperation. Social and youth challenges The social situation in the mountainous areas of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan is a big challenge, and lack of proper education and work places makes it difficult to get out of the vicious circle. Energy supply broke down after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the population is forced to deplete vulnerable natural resources, which further worsen the situation and make the communities even more vulnerable towards climate change consequences. For example, cutting scarce forests and bushes leads to land degradation and further provoke natural disasters, like mudflows and landslides. Important agricultural production has decreased substantially. The severe social situation force the male population to Russia and Kazakhstan for illegal work and as much as two million Tajik and Kyrgyz men temporary live and work in Russia, which is almost half of the adult male population 4. This leaves the struggle to survive at the many small family farms to women, children and youth. Girls are working at home and usually experience early marriages, and boys often have to take over their often absent fathers duties in the fields. Both Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan are countries of young people. 70% of the population in Tajikistan and in Kyrgyzstan is young people (age of less than 30 years). In spite of this fact, governments hardly recognize youth as real power and agents of change.. Young people are perceived more as an object, which has to be directed and patronized, rather than a power which is capable to promote and contribute to positive changes and influence reforms and development in the countries. Constituting the majority of local communities and main labour force on local level, youth voices are hardly heard in decision-making processes even if it directly affect their lives. Legacy from Soviet rule mixed with traditional ways of organizing society create strong barriers for youth and deprive them of the chance to participate in a fair and democratic manner in making changes in their own communities. Lack of democratic traditions and understanding, hierarchical structures, widespread corruption, lack of quality education and absence of chance to be heard forces young people to seek meaning otherwise, in for example religious groups, or to make efforts to leave the country on every possible way. The young people who stay have few chances to receive proper education and break out of poverty. 4 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ti.html 10

11 Involvement of today's youth in environmental and development decision-making in their own communities is critical to the long-term success and crucial because it affects their current life situation and has implications for their futures. At the same time young people s intellectual contribution and their ability to mobilize support bring unique perspectives for communities that need to be taken into account. Education The level of education in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan is in general very low, in particular in rural areas. Poor school infrastructure, low morale of teachers due to low salaries, and lack of investments in teachers skills and competence are all aspects contributing to poor education of the countries youth. Teachers education is defective, which in its turn has a severe effect on the education of the countries new generations. Many qualified teachers look for alternative jobs for better income. The current education system does not maintain a regular and up-to-date record of school dropouts (both temporary and permanent) in Tajikistan, official figures from Kyrgyzstan show that from the start around 10 % of kids are kept back from the schools, and a little bit more girls than boys. The percentage gradually increases, and becomes dramatically high after compulsory classes, where only 51,9 % of the girls and 45,6 % of the boys attend upper secondary school/college. Our Kyrgyz NGO partners also state that their national statistics are clearly underestimating the problem, as schools tend to provide overestimated statistical figures for the number of pupils attending the school in order to attract resources and teachers. The school fees pose an additional important barrier for higher education. Due to widespread poverty many families cannot afford to pay school fees and provide other necessary means for their kids education, the situation being more severe in the rural areas. Families concentrate their efforts on survival, and as a result many kids are denied their rights to basic education. Teachers working in developing countries are usually resource persons for the local society, and almost everywhere try to do their best under very difficult conditions. However, it is evident that the teachers lack basic education, and that the additional training they get through established institutions for retraining of teachers is insufficient. Teachers do not have updated information on key global challenges, as climate change, and have no new information to pass on to the pupils. Educational material contains little to nothing on environment, and teachers thus pass on obsolete and outdated information and solutions to their pupils. The schools also lack modern infrastructure as access to internet, computers and telephone communication. As mentioned in chapter 2.1, Naturvernforbundet and Natur og Ungdom have gained strong experience working with youth. Naturvernforbundet through the school project SPARE, Natur og Ungdom by being a youth organisation. Natur og Ungdom is an ideal youth environmental organisation that shows that organisations by youth for youth can be a very important stakeholder in the society. Climate change Greenhouse gas emissions in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan per capita are one of the lowest in the world (129th and 117th rank in the UNFCCC list for 2005 year respectively), but the countries are among those that already suffer most from global warming. So far the republics face serious consequences of climate change, such as glaciers melting, escalating desertification, increasing average temperatures, changes in precipitation, more frequent extreme weather events (hails, snowfalls, droughts) as well as more intensive natural disasters. 11

12 An Oxfam report on climate change and poverty investigate Tajikistan as a case 5. According to the report, nearly 1.5 million people in Tajikistan are already experiencing food insecurity, and the number is certain to rise if Tajikistan is unable to implement reforms and adaptation measures. World Bank has given highest climate change vulnerability rank to four of the five countries of Central Asia, whereas Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan are the most vulnerable to climate change. 6 According to official data in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan temperatures in these mountains countries have increased by 0,3-1,2 degrees. 7 A negative change in the precipitation was observed in some regions of both republics. Glaciers cover 4 % of Kyrgyz and 6 % of Tajik territory. Glaciers, permafrost and snow reserves in the mountains of Central Asia are considered as «water towers», guaranteeing water supplies. They are crucial for agriculture economy of the whole region of Central Asia and vital for hydropower which both Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan mainly rely on. Glaciers are more sensitive and vulnerable to climate change impacts than many other natural systems. In the last years, between 14 % to 30 % of the Tien Shan and Pamir glaciers have melted. Climate change contributes to the risk of floods, mudflows and outbreaks of summer glaciers lakes, especially in mountains regions. According to some forecast models during next 100 years a number of small and medium glaciers can disappear completely in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. This will affect the water supply and agricultural production in different areas of Central Asia, where severe conflict over scarce water resources can be seen. Over the next decades climate change will accelerate this situation dominated by socio-economic factors with dire environmental situation and degrading infrastructure. There is little doubt that climate change will force people to move from regions with high level of environmental stress and impacts on agriculture and water resources. 8 Naturvernforbundet and Natur og Ungdom are some of the most important stakeholders within climate change discussions in Norway. We have gained strong knowledge and competence working with issues as sustainable development and climate change the last 40 years. We are the only organisations working practical on a local level in Norway, in the municipalities through our local groups. At the same time with lobby work towards national authorities and participating in international negotiations. Our competence in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan is strong after 10 years of building up local partners within climate change mitigation and adaptation. Energy challenges Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan are mountain countries with marginalized communities, fragile ecosystems and scarcity of local natural resources. The countries have little energy resources except hydropower, and depend on import of oil and gas. They both face severe energy shortages during winters due to low level in water storages. Frequent power blackouts during the coldest winter period are common in rural areas and even in the cities. Many rural villages have only limited access to electricity during the wintertime (a few hours a day), while some have no access at all. This naturally affects working conditions in public buildings such as schools and hospitals, and families have to survive without heat and electricity for a longer period of time. Only the biggest cities have district heating, which is not Report Climate change in Central Asia, ZOI Environmental Network 12

13 working properly. Buildings in the villages are heated by coal, wood or local biomass products like dried manure. School buildings are in general in bad condition. Even new schools can lack heating system and water/sanitation facilities. Insulation is mostly non-existent, and windows and doors have often wide open cracks. The result is that the educational situation often is very poor during wintertime. With indoor temperatures falling down to around 10 degrees, pupils are sitting with coats on indoor. Many schools do not have the possibility to heat at all, and close completely for the coldest winter months. In Tajikistan during winter schools winter vacation was prolonged by the Ministry of Education by several weeks due to unusual cold weather, while the same happened in Kyrgyzstan in 2010/2011. Rural inhabitants of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan are particularly vulnerable to energy poverty. Extreme weather conditions, where winter temperatures can drop down to -30 C, can isolate mountain areas for several months of the year, as road infrastructure is very poor and vulnerable to the tough climate. Villages in our target areas face energy problems due to lack of access to central electricity supply and shortage of biomass that is usually used for cooking and heating, which leads to forest cutting and soil degradation. The destruction of vegetation is leading to environmental degradation and an accordingly increased number of natural disasters. Lack of essential resources escalates conflicts for available fire wood and biomass. Lack of energy services affects vital activities of local communities and reduces their ability and capacity for further development. Women and children make up the majority of the poor and are most severely affected. In particular women and children use a lot of time for collection of firewood and manure. Their health is also heavily affected by smoke from inefficient traditional indoor stoves using firewood, dried manure, and if affordable, coal. Naturvernforbundet has developed high niche expertise on low cost energy solutions made by low cost local materials, and has in general a high understanding of how energy challenges can be solved. Naturvernforbundet will be an important advisor and give consultancy on the energy solutions for planned regional youth centres and for energy measures at schools. 13

14 2.6 Budget: State the title of the local partner organizations, the projects, as well as the total budget. Maximum total budget: Norwegian kroner Partner organisation Title of project Annual budget (mill NOK) Total budget (mill NOK) Little Earth Education and information 0,5 2,5 BIOM Education and information 0,5 2,5 Little Earth Establishing 3 youth centres 1 5 BIOM Establishing 3 youth centres 1 5 Little Earth Capacity building and advocacy work 0,5 2,5 BIOM Capacity building and advocacy work 0,5 2,5 Little Earth Practical activities and pilot projects 0,5 2,5 BIOM Practical activities and pilot projects 0,5 2,5 All Travels and regional cooperation 0,6 3 Total budget for cooperating partner organisations: 5, Brief description of how the organization applying will coordinate with the local partners We will be in frequent contact with the local partners. A working group with representatives from all organizations will facilitate common planning processes, mutual understanding of all aspects and intentions behind the activities, and establish routines for regular follow up and monitoring of program progress and results. In addition to daily communication we will have frequent on site visits. Both Naturvernforbundet and Natur og Ungdom will participate directly in many of the program activities. Our partners have since the start of the cooperation with Naturvernforbundet developed specialized experience and competence within national energy and climate issues. They are recognized as stakeholders on national level, and have increasingly been invited to participate in national policy processes within these fields. They have established contacts and networks among authorities, relevant technical institutions, other donor organizations and civil society organizations. They have also increased their organizational basis and improved project management skills. The partners have developed specific competence and thus become a resource for other organizations in the countries. The ODW program will strengthen our partner organisations further in several ways. Implementation of a big program like ODW will be noticed on all levels, from local to national, and will strengthen the position of our partners among many relevant stakeholders. Administrating such a big program, we will implement measures to professionalize and strengthen the administrative routines within our partner organisations. Our partners will also continue to develop their capacity and competence within thematic issues as climate change and practical energy solutions, and within organisational issues as mobilization and information. ODW will also give the partner organisations a possibility to make a real 14

15 difference in remote areas, where it has been difficult to reach out on sufficient level with the project support that has been available earlier. This will give them a very strong contact network and basis for further development of their activities, and for attraction of additional funding from additional donors. 2.8 Briefly describe for each local partner Little Earth, Tajikistan Naturvernforbundet has been cooperating with Little Earth since 2001 and our joint activities have evolved steadily. From the first steps with development of the SPARE project, we have directed our efforts into more comprehensive programs on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The energy activities have been especially targeted towards mountain villages, also the more isolated high mountain region of Pamir. Little Earth has over the years developed key competence within climate change, energy issues and education that makes the organisation a natural choice for the program. Also their project management skills have been accordingly developed, and we consider the organisation well fit to host a program like ODW. Working with local communities, Little Earth always adhere to the principle that in addition to the technology itself, it is necessary to transfer knowledge and skills to the local communities, so they can continue to use and develop the most appropriate alternatives for them. That is why in recent years Little Earth has organized seminars and exhibitions to give local communities information on available technologies and alternatives, and facilitates debates devoted to various issues and initiatives at local level. Little Earth often operates through a network of local partners in the field, and for example the SPARE project is implemented by Little Earth through a network of four permanent partners in different regions of the country, including the targeted area of this program proposal. Local NGOs provide assistance in the collection of the necessary data, as well as in organizing and carrying out the necessary activities. By working with local communities partnerships are developed with community based organizations such as Jamoat development centers (traditional municipalities). Within the educational programs or practical energy efficiency projects Little Earth is cooperating with the local authorities or local educational agencies, such as District or City Departments of Education. Educational programs, capacity building and practical activities are means to empower the youth of the isolated mountain villages. Improved communication and new meeting places are important in order to build networks and youth-led organizations. The program will not only provide youth an opportunity to participate, raise their awareness and provide them new skills on local level, but will promote related initiatives and projects lead by youth in communities, and further development of youth environmental movement on national level. BIOM, Kyrgyzstan Naturvernforbundet has been cooperating actively with BIOM since 2003, when they became involved in the SPARE project. Since then our cooperation has developed with high pace, and has included several projects on practical energy. In BIOM and Naturvernforbundet implemented jointly a project on development of solar energy for water heating in Kyrgyzstan, with support from local UNDP/GEF small grant, and Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 15

16 Working with local communities in development of alternative technologies BIOM always takes into consideration their needs and requirements. Together with local activists, young people and local authorities, BIOM holds workshops to pass skills about energy-efficient technologies to local masters. In addition, to demonstrate the advantages of alternative technologies BIOM has equipped schools, kindergartens, orphanages and first-aid points with solar systems. Within its projects BIOM closely cooperates with local and state governments and with the business community. For example, in the implementation of SPARE, cooperation has been established with the Ministry of Education, Ministries of Energy, Ministry of Youth, Labour and Employment, as well as with the regional state administrations. BIOM is a council-member of the interagency governmental task force for discussion of country policy and strategies on climate change and energy efficiency. Similar to Little Earth, BIOM has over the years developed key competence within climate change, energy issues and education that makes the organisation a natural choice for the program. Also their project management skills have been accordingly developed, and we consider the organisation the best partner in Kyrgyzstan to host a program like ODW. 2.9 Describe the local partners experience and competence on youth participation Little Earth Little Earth was established in 1997 by a group of young activists and is thus one of the oldest environmental organizations in Tajikistan. Currently, the organization consists of 6 employees and has 4 SPARE coordinators in each region of the country. Additionally, Little Earth participates in the Fredskorpset on organizational development and sustainable energy issues, which is facilitated by Naturvernforbundet. Furthermore, Little Earth has 2 years of experience working with young volunteers from Germany. Little Earth has through many years gained important knowledge working towards local communities in rural areas and directly towards young people. Through the SPARE-project, Little Earth has gained hands-on experience with education and involvement of youth. This includes trainings, development of various information and educational publications for youth. Through the energy projects, Little Earth involves and educates pupils on practical energy solutions. As a result of this, the organization has managed to motivate and involve a wide number of young volunteers. Currently, Little Earth has 70 active members between 13 and 18 years old. They are part of local youth groups all over the country. The youth groups take part in activities of the organization through national campaigns, advocacy and information work. Through participation in the annual meeting, and the establishment of a board, representatives from the youth groups are also taking part in the democratic decisionmaking within the organization. The biggest barriers for youth involvement in Tajikistan today are general lack of infrastructure, resources and capacity. Lack of infrastructure makes communication a challenge, and there are few meeting platforms for youth to discuss freely. Although there is a big potential to include more youth in the activities of Little Earth, the organization possess currently not the economic resources and capacity to do so. Additionally, the political situation is also an important barrier for the involvement of youth. During the last years, there has been a worsening of the political situation and a setback in important rights such as political participation in movements, and freedom of expression has been 16

17 limited. With the establishment of educational youth centres and by using the organizational structure of Little Earth however, we believe that youth will be enabled to increase their involvement. The youth members of Little Earth will be important within the ODW program. Trained volunteers will be responsible for presentations, trainings and education of other youth. On a long-term perspective, the youth groups will run the centres on a daily basis. Youth volunteers of Little Earth and staff have been able to give ideas and comments in the first phase of the ODW application. Additionally, youth members of Little Earth, local partners and schools in rural areas were interviewed during the ODW study trip about their views and the situation for young people in Tajikistan. BIOM The Ecological Movement BIOM was established in 1993 as a non-profit voluntary organization unifying young environmentalists. Currently, the organization consists of 20 employees. BIOM has 450 members. Since it was established, the organization has implemented projects and programs focused on young people, aimed at strengthening their role in development of sustainable communities. Young leaders are now involved in various public and political activities on energy and nature protection issues. BIOM is founder and coordinator of Youth Environmental Network of Kyrgyzstan, which today includes more than 200 activists across the country. Each regional center (total 7) has two local representatives, who supervise the work of the organization on local level. Member of BIOM participates at the meetings of Interstate Commission on Sustainable Development for Central Asia as representative of the regional Youth Environmental Network. Representatives of BIOM and the Youth Environmental Network of Kyrgyzstan are involved in various stakeholders forums on national level on a regular base. Lack of competence and awareness of young people on environmental, climate change and other related issues and limited educational programs are key barriers for their participation in decision making processes. Due to these factors youth are not properly involved in environmental protection movements and their voices are weak. The establishment of youth environmental centers will substantially strengthen the work of BIOM in promotion and transferring of environmental knowledge and values to the young people and new generations. Youth activists of BIOM were actively involved in the development process of this proposal. BIOM held a number of meetings and consultations where young members of the organization had a choice to express their views and contribute to the planning phase To what degree will girls and boys have equal opportunities to participate in the program? The program has a special focus on gender. The school activities in general and the empowerment of the youth in particular, include efforts to reduce drop-out from schools, and this work relates to gender specific differences. Both boys and girls drop out of school at an increasing pace. Girls dropout is connected to work at home and recurring religious or traditional ways of life. Boys are needed for farm work, as work migration leave the villages almost without any male workers. Improved school buildings increase the possibilities for continues education, even during winters, the period where there are least conflicts between schooling and farming. Practical energy projects reduce the burden on the families in collecting firewood for cooking and heating. 17

18 In the youth centres there will be a high focus on equality. The centres will be open for all youth despite gender, religious beliefs or belongings. If due to religious or cultural aspects some groups are not able to visit the centres, we will arrange special days for only girls or for other groups. In the program we will invite local representatives from different organisations working with equal rights in the planning processes. Based on previous experience, specific gender-strategies will be developed for each project area to ensure participation of both girls and boys in the program. A special sensitization strategy towards the parents and local community on the importance for both genders to attend the centers will be developed 2.11 To what degree do disabled youths have the opportunity to participate? Disabled youth is defined as a separate target group in the program. Inclusive education is a target in all school activities. The aim of empowerment of the youth includes all individuals in the villages. Today the educational system has low priority on education for all. Disabled youth find little support in facilitating the education for them. This goes both for how the education is organized and physical obstacles. The program will advocate inclusive education through work with youth organizations, school authorities and in physical planning.the centers will be designed and equipped with facilities for disabled people. The centers will have volunteers who will provide required assistance and help to disabled people inside the centers. The centers will have funds available for transportation of disabled youth to and from the centers. Experienced specialists and organizations promoting the rights of disabled people will be invited to in the planning of the program 2.12 What is the phasing-out plan? What are the possibilities for a sustainable development? The program activities are planned for a period of five years, and even if we believe we will achieve a lot in our target areas, we will look for ways to continue the work both there and in other locations. As for the youth centres, we will plan for income generating activities, that will give a basis for further operation of the centres after the termination of the program. Towards the end of the program we will assess what role BIOM and Little Earth will have in further running of the centres, if possible they will be run by local youth, but there might be a gradual process for local takeover, and our partners might be further involved as consultants and might be further involved in facilitating activities around the centres. Both Little Earth and BIOM will be able to continue with activities within the same field after the program term. The organizations will be stronger, have a wider network and a better position to continue and develop activities drawn from the experiences and results from the ODW program. The program implementation will constitute a platform for our partners, upon which new relations and cooperation constellations can and will be built, and that will in long term contribute further to development in the involved regions. Presently, civil society in these former Soviet countries is dominated by groups and individuals from an older generation, many with their sole experience from organizational work during the Soviet Union. By investing in youth involvement, we ensure that our current partners have a wider selection of informed and educated successors who are willing and able to continue the work, to further strengthen civil society and to further contribute to a shift from the old, Soviet mentality. The main outcome of the program is increased capacity and empowerment of youth. This is also the main exit strategy in the way that what the participants has learned and experienced during the program will be an asset for their future engagement and work. 18

19 The program will train and empower many individuals who will continue to live and work in the country. In this way this program in itself will contribute to long term development effects beyond the activities and results that we expect within the program period: A wide range of youth will participate in the program activities and gain new knowledge; they will be able to contribute to changes in attitudes towards participation and decision making, energy and climate adaptation.. Teachers will be trained and get experiences that will benefit new pupils. Methods for low-cost energy efficiency, use of local renewable energy sources and other alternative technologies are demonstrated and ready for further implementation. Improved school buildings will make winter education possible for new pupils. Youth and their families spend less time on collection of firewood. Households spend less money on purchase of firewood and fuel. Youth organizations and networks will have been trained and be in a better position to continue their activities. The program has made an influence on local authorities and other program partners to facilitate inclusive education, youth empowerment and improved resource management. Youth in targeted areas will have the knowledge needed to adapt to climate change in their local villages. Youth initiate and lead projects on sustainable development in their own communities. Improved cooperation and partnership between youth environmental groups on national and regional levels What routines does the Norwegian applicant organization possess for following-up the economic cooperation with local partners to ensure that the funds are used in accordance with the objectives? Naturvernforbundet operate programs and projects with support from NORAD and Ministry of Foreign Affairs as well as other donors in around 20 countries, and have adopted professional and wellfunctioning routines for project management and financial administration of our projects. We have developed ethical and anti-corruption guidelines, as well as management routines. Our management routines were evaluated by NORAD in , with good result, which was the basis for a new and extended 5 year cooperation agreement with NORAD. Naturvernforbundet has been cooperating with both the partners for several years, and knows that they have sufficient routines for financial management. However, if we do get a program from ODW, the money flow will increase and management and control routines have to be adapted to the new level of activity. We are already starting on this with our partners through existing projects, and go through routines and identify possible areas for changes and improvement. Corruption is widespread in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. This has not been a problem towards our partners directly, but it can be a problem when they in their turn implement activities and engage local partners. An important key in solving this potential problem is that our local partners are provided with sufficient resources and technical support in order to establish a comprehensive system for project monitoring and reporting

20 Funding will be transferred only to official accounts of the organizations, in regular tranches. Naturvernforbundet will require external auditing, with annual audits, as well as midterm and annual narrative reports. Naturvernforbundet will follow the program implementation closely, with current contact with our partners and frequent field visits to both countries. Several persons from each organization will be involved in the program establishment, activity planning and development of agreements and financial routines. Important program documents will be bilingual (English and Russian), in order to ensure maximum transparency in both Norway and in the program countries. At the start of the program period we will conclude a five-year program agreement with both partners, which will include an additional annual follow-up agreement. The agreements will be signed by both partners, and serve as legal documentation in the countries. Maren Esmark generalsekretær Naturvernforbundet Sigrid Ryeng Alnes Daglig leder Natur og Ungdom 20

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