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1 Astrup Fearnley Collection Astrup Fearnley samlingen ROTASJONER #1

2 ROTASJONER ROTATING VIEWS #1 Astrup Fearnley samlingen Astrup Fearnley Collection 2

3 Astrup Fearnley samlingen Astrup Fearnley Collection ROTASJONER #1 ROTATING VIEWS

4 contents 7 / 83 A rotating collection/en roterende samling Gunnar B. Kvaran Exhibited artists / utstilte kunstnere 8 / 84 Allora & Calzadilla 42 / 94 Shilpa Gupta 12 / 85 Matthew Barney 44 / 95 Guyton\Walker 14 / 86 Frank Benson 48 / 96 Damien Hirst 18 / 87 Cao Fei 54 / 97 Anselm Kiefer 22 / 88 Paul Chan 58 / 98 Ann Lislegaard 26 / 89 Chu Yun 62 / 99 Liu Wei 30 / 90 Gardar Eide Einarsson 66 / 100 Bjarne Melgaard 34 / 91 Olafur Eliasson 70 / 101 Shintaro Miyake 36 / 92 Gilbert & George 74 / 102 Adam Putnam 40 / 93 Douglas Gordon 76 / 103 Yang Fudong Texts by/tekster av Hanne Beate Ueland & Grete Årbu

5 A Rotating Collection Gunnar B. Kvaran The Astrup Fearnley Museum of Modern Art houses an exceptional collection of international contemporary art. It is not a historical collection tracing a chronological development and it does not explore specific artistic movements or aspire to present an encyclopaedic overview of international art today. Rather, it can best be described as a carefully selected cluster of major works by leading international contemporary artists. The Astrup Fearnley Collection is vast and expanding. For the next two years, its works will go on a temporary rotating display within the museum. The concept of rotation enables us to work with the collection as a whole but not at the same time. It presents a way to create constellations of works on the move, and facilitates surprising and unique assemblages of art across a large, diverse conceptual and thematic spectrum. Rotating the works introduces the notion of a broken linearity, as works from several decades and different political and cultural contexts are shown together. It also allows for an atypical geographical order as Western artists from Scandinavia, France, Germany, Britain and the United States share the space with Eastern artists from China, Japan, Korea, Thailand and India. Rotation, in this way, highlights the alphabetical, artist-based nature of the Astrup Fearnley Collection, emphasising individual artists rather than an abstract chronological or historical framework. Rotation allows for a multitude of possibilities and as such mirrors the complex, open nature of pictorial language. Inviting endless ways of bringing together different kinds of art, it generates new readings and experiences of particular objects and creates inter-work relationships, which may even reveal hidden and mysterious coalitions and affiliations. Over the next two years, visitors are offered a chance to see works from the collection in a new light. This long-term engagement presents a potpourri of artists, stylistic genres and complex social, political and aesthetic themes. And in the process, it documents pioneering new dimensions in contemporary art. 9

6 Allora & Calzadilla Jennifer Allora, born 1974 in Philadelphia, USA Guillermo Calzadilla, born 1971 in Havanna, Cuba Live and work in Puerto Rico Jennifer Allora and Guillermo Calzadilla have collaborated since 1995, creating works that critically engage with the diverse challenges brought about by globalization. Born and raised in different cultures, USA and Cuba respectively, they now live and work in Puerto Rico, a self-governing territory of the United States with a hybrid Caribbean culture and a strong colonial past. The beautiful tropical island is further characterized by its heavy industry and space explor ation research, giving rise to a tension which is at the heart of the artists practice. Whether producing sculptures, photographs, performances, sound or video works, their understanding of the relationship between material form and content remains similar: one must never assume that a given form has a specific, predetermined meaning. It is always impacted by history, culture and the political context within which it exists. Clamor (2006) examines music and sound as possible weapons, and the role of music in war and political conflicts throughout the world. The work itself resembles a bunker that has engulfed the room it is in. Part of its exterior looks like a mountainous outcropping or a ruin. In the small openings towards the top where one would normally expect to see weapons stick out, musical instruments protrude. During live concerts staged by the artists, these instruments come to life musicians, confined and hidden inside the bunker, play fragments from an extensive archive of military marches, patriotic songs and emotional symphonies specific to their historical and geographical contexts. The music is played with old battered wind instruments and drums and includes everything from Ottoman Janissary corps music, Vietcong hymns, ballads from the October Revolution to more recent pop music, as for example Twisted Sister s We re Not Gonna Take It, played by American forces during the Panama invasion in Also included are musical vignettes used in CNN s war broadcasts and examples of songs playing into the headphones of American soldiers in today s Iraq. Sometimes the musical references are drowned out by pure racket, a chilling reminder to the war theme and the work s title. At least as far back as ancient Greece, generals have been known to use musical racket (drums and horns) to incite troops to war, but also to inspire fear in the enemy by giving the impression of an extraordinarily large army. When not staging a live concert, Allora and Calzadilla have prepared a 40-minute recording which is played from an audio system inside the sculptural installation. Both here and in the live version, the artists juxtapose a number of iconic songs that create meaning, first through sound, but also through what they represent. The work can thus be read allegorically. The immaterial musical component establishes a curious contrast to the compact physicality of the bunker as the typically upbeat mood of the melodies struggles to find a counterpart in the physical work. Representing specific epochs, events and cultures, Clamor is nonetheless a timely address to the global dimensions of wars today it leaves behind a thought provoking resonance forcing us to wonder what progress we have truly made despite obvious technological advances. (g å) 10 Allora & Calzadilla Clamor,

7 Allora & Calzadilla 12 Allora & Calzadilla Clamor,

8 Matthew Barney Born 1967 in San Francisco, USA Lives and works in New York, USA Giant cables have snapped and are torn loose from their moorings. An iron crane has collapsed and lies crumpled on the ground. Steel, rope, iron and rust are transposed into white and lavender-coloured thermoplastic. Matthew Barney s impressive sculptural work, Torii (2006), imitates powerful processes and, typical of the artist s ambitious and complex universe, we are invited to enter a sensuous epic full of symbolic encounters and rituals. The enormous sculpture belongs to the series Drawing Restraint 9 ( ), which, in addition to an eponymously titled film, also includes numerous other sculptures and drawings. Dating back to 1987, the epically proportioned Drawing Restraint series can be described as a study in how resistance is a trigger for growth and creativity. Barney draws parallels between biological production systems and artistic processes, and in several of the series earliest works, concrete physical exertions take place. Torii reflects a transition from old industrial traditions to new realities and challenges. Its time-oriented dimension and allusion to movement relate to the film Drawing Restraint 9, which depicts a man and a woman meeting at a tea ceremony onboard the Japanese whaler Nisshin Maru. Played by Barney and Icelandic musician Björk, respectively, the film focuses on the relationship between the ship s Japanese host and the guests. As the film progresses in various stages, the man and the woman are gradually transformed as they confront specific cultural stereotypes and traditions (as for example the Shinto religion, the tea ceremony and whaling). Barney emphasizes the social, historical and formal aspects of the group s interaction and turns their relationships into battlegrounds of physical and psychological resistance. The inspiration and source for the large sprawling sculpture is the Nisshin Maru, at once the film s most concrete and metaphorical stage. Its structure is directly taken from the huge crane used to hoist whale cadavers into the boat. Meanwhile, its title Torii, denotes a traditional Japanese gateway that marks the boundary between the profane world and a holy Shinto shrine, an apt allusion to the work s enormous proportions. The sculpture is at once a reference to the traditional but highly contentious whaling industry and a site of ancient religious worship. The crane that, in its original state, can be said to mimic the formal structure of a torii, has now collapsed into a bewildering mass of loose cables and ropes. The once so powerful tool is reduced to a powerless, meaningless structure. Torii mirrors the formal interaction between the actors in the film and the physical transformations that take place and consequently forges a direct link between the sculpture and the film. It evidences drama and movement and the powerful forces set in motion on the ship. The cross between this remnant of industrial architecture and Barney s plastic aesthetic seems intent on dissolving the boundary between reality and fiction, opening up a new and as yet unknown alternative. (h b u) 14 Matthew Barney Torii,

9 Frank Benson Born 1976 in Norfolk, USA Lives and works in New York, USA Frank Benson is part of a younger generation of American artists who critically review the legacy of Pop Art and appropriation. Along with artists like Hannah Greely and Matt Johnson (both included in the Astrup Fearnley Collection), his works more specifically belong to the new school of sculpture that has emerged in Los Angeles in recent years. Here, artists have begun to reject large-scale installations in favour of a return to the sculptural object, itself. This is closely linked with the idea of reification as artists place renewed emphasis on the extraordinary and sometimes surprising qualities of everyday products. Characteristic for the new school, Benson s sculptures appear at once refined and unusual representations of well-known goods. A student and former assistant of Charles Ray, he has acquired his mentor s intricate combination of hyper-realism and a fragmented and complex narrative structure. In Chocolate Fountain #2 (2008), Benson has created a perfect replica of a chocolate fountain, an object readily associated with desires of bourgeois consumer culture. Cast in steel and with a highly polished finish, the sculpture looks identical to the real thing we can almost feel and smell the warm, molten chocolate. But as with Benson s other works, including his Human Statue (2005) (also in the Astrup Fearnley Collection), Chocolate Fountain is, and remains, a useless representation: it is static and dysfunctional. The illusion of warm flowing chocolate is contrasted by the non-functional scissor lift which makes up the fountain s pedestal, its white angular, lofty construction clashing with the rounded, glistening brown layers of the fountain itself. The pure uselessness of the object has modernist connotations. The perfectly geometric and iconic form invokes the work of artists such as Constantin Brancusi, its polished realism fusing with an abstract formal ideal. Drawn from consumer culture, however, Benson s subject matter could not be further removed from modernist masters aspiration to high art. Self-consciously kitsch, the chocolate fountain s curious mix of purist desire and consumer culture lends it the weight of a totemic monument. Benson s objects and figures are exquisite examples of handcraft. Far from the readymades of Pop Art, time and extreme care goes into creating these sculptures. His at times surreal artistic formula transforms well-known objects into hybrids and by drastically questioning their real life use value by presenting them as dysfunctional as art objects he addresses one of the most pertinent questions of the 20 th and 21 st centuries: when do everyday objects stop being everyday objects and become art? With his transformation of a chocolate fountain into Chocolate Fountain, Benson asks the viewer to draw his or her own conclusion perhaps leaving some with a bittersweet aftertaste. (g å) 16 Frank Benson Chocolate Fountain #2,

10

11 Cao Fei Born 1978 in Guangzhou, China Lives and works in Beijing and Guangzhou, China Born in Guangzhou in 1978, Cao Fei has already established herself as one of the most import ant living Chinese artists, staging regular exhibitions in galleries around the globe. Her surprising, alluring artworks are characterized by their theatricality and their insistence on a precise pictorial idiom. Underlying her practice as a whole is an implicit yet acute observation of the relationship between the individual and the system. With humour and playfulness, Cao Fei observes youths dressed in colourful manga costumes, seen against Guangzhou s cementgrey streets. Or she enters factories and invites workers to play out their innermost dreams, staged between clattering machines and assembly lines. She shows us fantasy worlds that are staged against realistic, even dystopian backgrounds. The newly globalised landscape burgeoning around the young Chinese artist is marked by an explosive urbanization process which challenges the relationship between reality and hyper-reality, and results in changing values and unclear standards. Her works depict a changing China full of both promise and dystopian undertones; they encompass a range of genres from documentary to fiction and fantasy. In I.Mirror: A Second Life City (2007), Cao Fei explores the relation between reality and representation as it manifests itself in the fictive universe of computer games. The work was created on the Internet-based platform, Second Life, a faux virtual world. In Second Life, players create their own avatars, or characters, and interact with others through online messages and virtual action. Cao Fei has thus created China Tracy who befriends another avatar, Hug Yue, and together they explore the fantasy realm. In I.Mirror, Cao Fei edits China Tracy s experiences from Second Life into a film that is shown in a purpose-built room where interior and exterior divisions are disturbed by confusing one- and two-way mirrors. Oblique angles underscore the unusual dimensions which computer programmed realities allow. Soft music (produced by the artist Ou Ning) creates a relaxed, positive mood while we watch China Tracy dance, flirt, fly and discuss the metaphysical relationship between the real world and Second Life with Hug Yue. As viewers, we are invited to take an active part in the complex game and explore its possibilities and limitations. These interactive qualities appeal predominantly to younger people with knowledge and experience from similar games, and much of Cao Fei s oeuvre is about the expanding youth culture in contemporary China. Yet her artistic input is not limited to any particular genre or population group. Her photography and film-based works, as well as her installations and performances, address the larger questions of one s relationship to oneself, to society and to reality itself. Her themes are movement, transition, and the similarities and contrasts that exist between different systems: old and new, real and virtual. (h b u) 20 Cao Fei I. Mirror: A Second Life City,

12 Cao Fei 22 Cao Fei I. Mirror: A Second Life City,

13 Paul Chan Born 1973 in Hong Kong, China Lives and works in New York, USA Born in Hong Kong, Paul Chan received his education in the USA. An increasingly prominent figure on the international art scene, he created a stir with his evocative animations in The 7 Lights, a series of projections created in the wake of September 11 and the war in Iraq. Having previously acquired this important work, the Astrup Fearnley Collection is delighted to expand its selection by the addition of another key work by the artist, the digital animation My birds trash the future (2004). The 17-minute long double-sided video projection presents a desolate, dystopian landscape with a single barren tree. Time passes: birds and smoke billows glide by, the sun rises and sets and stars follow their course across the night sky. The animation begins with a reference to Samuel Beckett s Waiting for Godot, revolves around Biblical themes and includes the literary figures Goya and Blake, the rapper Biggie Smalls, the filmmaker Pier Paulo Pasolini and several contemporary suicide bombers with backpacks. This chaotic, colourful blend of loaded themes and cartoon-like figures appears at once apocalyptic and deeply ironic. Chan s surprising choice of references, old and new, blurs the distinction between imagination and reality, fiction and non-fiction. His stylistic inspirations are similarly eclectic and include as varied sources as Andy Warhol, The Simpsons, advertising and the psychedelic artist group, Dearraindrop. His careful use of Photoshop to create simple and striking images and erratic movements, coupled with an epic narrative and a degree of sheer madness, lend the work the appearance of a computer game. Chan s technical aptness, his unusual style and his use of innovative viewing strategies make him a leading protagonist of video art in the 21st century. In order to see the work in its entirety, viewers must move from one side of the screen to the other. The action on both sides is similar but is presented from different angles one frontal, the other set from behind. This double-vision approach eschews the hierarchical mode of viewing, opening it up while also making it a physical, laborious task as viewers move back and forth between the projections. Aside from responding to a common fascination with what is on the other side, on a philosophical level, the two-sidedness illustrates the tremendous intricacy of perception: regardless of what you are seeing, there is always another way of looking at it. The viewer s experience of watching is made self-consciously subjective and frustratingly incomplete, a predicament that is mirrored by the unfolding story s fragmented, disruptive character. While moving from one side of the screen to the other, one finds oneself for a brief moment in a perceptual void; the screen becomes a hanging sculpture and the pictures disappear. This moment of perceptual breakdown creates a pause for reflection over how visual meaning is established. Paul Chan is an intellectual artist intimately familiar with current philosophical, political and aesthetic debates. Although he has been dubbed an activist artist, he does not want his artworks to be seen as political acts. While a work like My Birds trash the future is deeply influenced by Chan s own experience of the situation in Iraq, it is first and foremost a melting pot of different visions, positions and opinions set in a fantastical, virtual world parallel to our own. (g å) 24 Paul Chan My birds trash the future,

14 Paul Chan 26 Paul Chan Untitled (Studies for My birds trash the future ), 2004 (detail) Paul Chan Untitled (Studies for My birds trash the future ), 2004 (detail) 27

15 Chu Yun Born 1977 in Jiangxi, China Lives and works in Shenzhen, China Developments that cause important changes in our lives are not necessarily concurrent with experiences we consciously remember. We can be affected by things that eschew direct awareness yet which nevertheless lead to drastic change. An alertness to the influence and significance of details is the starting point for Chu Yun s approach to art. His works are often described as Postminimal architectural interventions, hushed meditations over the areas of minimal difference between (or in) art and life, or over events where there is little room for manoeuvre. Often, the emphasis is on everyday, personal space. In 1607 (2003), for example, he took nearly 6,000 photos of his 20 square meter flat and piled them into one thick stack which he fastened to the wall. Only the first picture was visible, but the awareness of the many motifs behind with their slight variations from the cover photo became a central aspect of the work. In Who Stole Our Bodies? #2 (2003), Chu Yun collected pieces of used soap from friends and arranged them in composition. The pastel coloured soaps in different sizes and shapes here symbolized individual destinies, decay and ultimately physical disappearance. Chu Yun s works often involve transforming a space with technological tools. One of the most well-known examples is his installation Constellation #2 (2006). The simple, mundane mater ials (used electronic appliances) acquire an almost magical quality when experienced in a dark room with their respective power lights flashing on and off. It is far from incidental that the title references astronomy. Experiencing this installation invokes the element of time, and with it the body s ability to adjust. The aspect of time is decisive and spans the moment a viewer enters the room and is struck by the beautiful, almost romantic atmosphere, to the moment he or she begins to grasp the materials and finally discovers which tools the artist has used. Isolated in the dark room, the viewer s awareness of his/her own reactions and sense impressions becomes heightened and intensified. This gradual realization of the actual state of affairs invites reflections on the trivialities of everyday life. Chu Yun has furnished the space similarly to how his own cramped and tiny flat is furnished, and this causes us to recognize similar set-ups in our own living situations. Here we experience machines we not merely depend upon, but which shape and steer our lives today. Drawing on Heidegger s circumspection of broken, unusable tools, shoes and other once useful objects, our encounter with Chu Yun s dysfunctional electrical paraphernalia becomes a remarkable reminder of the (usually) unremarkable tools function and significance. Chu Yun s artistic practice takes into account the significance of microscopic changes, which in turn communicate clearly and directly with the viewer. In a twist on Minimalism s theatricality, Constellation #2 establishes a lasting relation between the work and the viewer, simultaneously involving elements of staging and surprise as it allows for an almost corporal realization of the nature and significance of objects. (h b u) 28 Chu Yun Constellation #2,

16 chu yun 30 Chu Yun Constellation #2,

17 Gardar Eide Einarsson Born 1976 in Oslo, Norway Lives and works in New York, USA Jackson Pollock is a heroic yet tragic figure in 20 th century art history. Achieving critical and commercial success with his unique and innovative artistic language, he was nonetheless debilitated by his personal anxieties and alcoholism. Recently, it has been suggested that his freeflowing, expressive style of painting was marshalled by the US Government in support of its political ideals during the Cold War. Gardar Eide Einarsson has used Pollock s central position in art history as source material for a number of his works in this exhibition. His inkjet print triptych shows fragments from one of Pollock s characteristic drip paintings and on the floor in front he has scattered objects pertaining to the artist s techniques and often outlandish conduct. Carefully cast in bronze, smashed beer cans, paint tubes and pipettes are strewn around in a manner akin to the drip technique. By using bronze a material associated with classic art production Einarsson underscores the older painter s now established position in art history while at the same time revealing the complexity of that history and the fictional aspects of his legacy. The notions of originality, struggle and tragedy that coalesce in the almost legendary story of the American painter find noteworthy parallels throughout Einarsson s art. He is interested in the lives of people who are outside today s established political, economic and cultural systems, and throughout his work he seeks to identify those symbols, codes and other messages that are used to define the boundaries of the groups they themselves form. Einarsson extracts his plethora of symbols and codes from the stylistic and often secretive languages of graffiti and tattoos as well as from mass-produced signs. Amalgamated and appropriated into an art context, they take on complex and multifaceted meanings. Materials and artistic style work in conjunction to express the reality from which the symbols were drawn. One example of this is a series of paintings in which Einarsson uses symbols from tattoos displayed by inmates in Russian and British prisons. The Astrup Fearnley Museum has previously exhibited the work ACAB (2007), inspired by a prison tattoo. Such symbols often abbreviations and simple geometric forms circumvent prison control routines and enable prisoners to convey secret messages. Einarsson transfers this unseen group s intricate, private communication system onto canvas. These meaningless/meaningful shapes (depending on your own references) are curiously painterly, an association which on canvas is reinforced by several drips from Einarsson s paintbrush disturbing the otherwise strict geometric figures (also here, allusions to Pollock are unmistakable). Reading these pictures involves different hermeneutical frameworks. What interests Einarsson is the relationship between the artwork s immediate, physical impact and the slower, more analytical effect akin to text production/reading. By transferring these coded messages to canvas, and thereby to the sphere of the art gallery a system dramatically different to the prison with its own unwritten rules and traditions Einarsson reveals the tension between communication and exclusion. Einarsson uses Pollock to thematically address the role of artistic practice in a larger political and cultural context, and thus also the work s role and significance beyond the museum or gallery space. Drawing on a post-conceptual tradition, Einarsson challenges viewers to reflect again over the sign systems at their disposal, and those beyond their reach. (h b u) 32 Gardar Eide Einarsson Unpainted Bronze (fluids),

18 Gardar Eide Einarsson 34 Gardar Eide Einarsson Untitled ( ),

19 Olafur Eliasson Born 1967 in Copenhagen, Denmark Lives and works in Berlin, Germany The Icelandic-Danish artist Olafur Eliasson has had a comet-like rise on the international art scene since his emergence in the mid-1990s. His major breakthrough came with his installation, The Weather Project, at the Tate Modern in London in 2003, the same year as he represented Denmark at the Venice biennial. In 2004, the Astrup Fearnley Museum staged a solo exhibition of the artist, which focused on his intricate use of light as an aesthetic medium and featured work produced specifically for this exhibition. Eliasson s practice is concerned with analysing a series of ephemeral phenomena in relation to their unique position in time and space. Through installations, staged events, sculptures, and photographs he instigates an almost scientific examination of the material conditions of his objects and their inherent changeability. Working with media such as water, steam, fire, wind and heat, Eliasson creates surprising effects by combining two otherwise foreign elements (introducing neon-green colour into a river, for example) or by detaching objects from their usual context. He understands that perception must be examined in the context of specific environments and needs to be approached as a culturally conditioned construction. To underscore this, viewers are sometimes given an active role in completing a work. In Your yellow versus red versus blue (2004) Eliasson makes use of light and colour, two trad itional artistic elements that occupy a central stage in his practice. The work consists of three differently-sized rotating circular glass plates, lit by a free-standing spotlight. Their surfaces are coated with a semi-transparent layer yellow, red and blue respectively and as the plates move, the colours are projected in circles onto the surrounding walls continuously forming new combinations and shapes. In the work itself, nothing is done to deceive the public. The motors and the tripod are part of the artwork. In a way, this work is a kind of tautology, an artwork that explains itself through a perpetual deconstruction. The viewer may marvel at these beauti ful, immaterial creations, but there is nothing illusory or metaphysical about the installation. Indeed, the work has an overt scientific dimension to it, invoking long-standing research into the properties of primary colours. At least since the Enlightenment, the causes and effects of colour and light have been subjected to intensive research, but only with minimalists such as James Turrell and Dan Flavin the viewer was brought into the artwork s arena as is the case here. A particular source of inspiration for Eliasson is the philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty, whose phenomenological observations of the interplay between the body-subject and the environment underpin the artist s interest in viewer participation and changeability. The colourwheel and the spotlight in Your yellow versus red versus blue underscore such concepts, as the endless reflections and variations that result from the wheel s rotation allow for an open-ended process of viewing, rather than a fixed act of looking (as if looking at a painting). A chromatic spectacle in its own right, the work draws together a range of disciplines beyond its presence as a work of art, indeed it seeks to bridge the divide between art and science in order to remind viewers of the centrality of both. Inspired by both ecological and humanist ideals, Eliasson is at the forefront of new ideas in these disciplines. Light and colour as both tangible and immaterial, as physical and psychological, is not just a central theme in Eliasson s artistic oeuvre but infiltrates many of his writings as well. (g å) 36 Olafur Eliasson Your yellow versus red versus blue,

20 Gilbert & George Gilbert Proesh, born 1943 in San Martin de Tor, Italy George Passmore, born 1942 in Plymouth, Great Britain Live and work in London, Great Britain The duo Gilbert & George emerged on the international art world in the late 1960s. Almost always seen clad in suits, their unique presence and stylistically adroit flirtation with popular culture underpin an artistic practice revolving around a close relation between art and life, and a fearless interest in complex social issues. Aptly, the two men began their careers as living sculptures with their work Singing Sculpture (1969). While Gilbert & George s artworks are often described as overwhelming and provocative, their main objective is not to shock, but to carry out an exploratory artistic process where viewers are encouraged to address emotions such as fear, agitation and disgust. Working in a variety of media, including painting, collage and video, much of their work is premised upon the conviction that personal investment is a necessary prerequisite for the art to exist. Their strong subjective engagement is underscored by the fact that they often highlight their own vulnerability sometimes with nudity, other times by addressing issues that are personally important to them. In the early 1980s, when the AIDS epidemic first gained world-wide attention and many of their close friends died, Gilbert & George staged the exhibition For AIDS (1989) and donated the proceeds to AIDS research. These pictures typically depict sorrowful, dark scenes. In Flow (1989), for instance, a set of enormous knees look like mountains against a blood-red sunset. Kneeling atop the sick looking body parts, the two artists find themselves in a stark, dismal landscape in the midst of a brutal reality. Several other works from this period reflect the artists fear when confronted with the unjust and merciless disease. Yell (1992) expresses intense angst and despair: here, separated from each other and from the rest of the world, the double portrait exudes isolation and loneliness the dire consequence for many sufferers and for their friends left behind. The smooth and richly coloured surfaces of many of Gilbert & George s works draw connections to advertisements, medieval stained glass and garish postcards. The large physical dimensions of their works and their rich colours compete for the attention of the viewer and appear spectacles in their own right. The artists typically find the raw material for their pictures in their home neighbourhood of London s East End, a poor but culturally vibrant area known for its diverse immigrant communities. They photograph details such as graffiti, excrements and manhole covers and then combine them in gigantic compositions that seek to capture the essence of urban life. In the series, Sonofagod (2005), elements from this multicultural and increasingly trendy neighbourhood are transformed into vividly coloured and evocative collages, often with religious overtones. In Was Jesus Heterosexual? (2005), a sexually explicit text frames two large crosses and an intricate display of heraldic ornaments. Each cross features a hanging figure of uncertain gender, below which the artists appear. Deemed blasphemous by some and liberating by others, there is no set recipe for how to approach such pictures. Gilbert & George challenge our own comfort levels with art and society, and to continue reflecting upon these potent themes well after we leave the gallery. (h b u) 38 Gilbert & George Yell, 1992, Flow,

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