1 NORDISK MUSEOLOGI Forord Den femte NODEM 1 -konference om digitale medier og kulturarv blev afholdt i København den november 2010 med titlen From Place to Presence, hvor de digitale teknologiers betydning for centrale museologiske emner blev præsenteret og diskuteret af oplægsholdere og deltagere fra museer, styrelser og universiteter. Konferencen var flersporet og bestod af præsentationer og demonstrationer af igangsatte digitale museumsprojekter fra Norden, USA og Australien, workshops med diskussioner og mere teoretiske forelæsninger om digitale teknologiers indflydelse og betydning for museums- og kulturarvsbegrebet. Fra denne konference 2 har Nordisk Museologi valgt at publicere fem artikler, som sammen med tre andre indsendte artikler danner grundlaget for dette nummers fokus på Digital museologi. 3 Digital museologi er ganske vist ikke et helt nyt felt, hverken videnskabeligt eller institutionelt. I 1999 publicerede Steve Dietz, der dengang var leder af New Media Initiatives ved Walker Art Gallery i Minneapolis, netartiklen CyberMuseology: Taking the museum to the Net/bringing digital media to the museum, 4 hvor han argumenterede for, at cybermuseologien ville flytte museologiens fokus fra fysiske samlinger til digitale databaser, fra særudstillinger til on-line-udstillinger, fra envejskommunikation til interaktivitet og kommunikation. Han opererede både med et museum 2.0 og 3.0. Om Museum 3.0 skrev Steve Dietz i samme artikel: Museum 3.0 will be a hybrid that is both physical and digital, both center and a node in the network, destination and portal, museum and archive. The more seamlessly the aspects are integrated, the greater
2 FORORD 2 the potential to engage our audience, anytime, anywhere, including here and now. To achieve this evolutionary mutation, we must learn how to socialize cyberspace. It must be a place and a means for interaction between people, not just ideas. Museum 3.0 er endnu langt fra en realitet for de fleste museer, men museerne verden over har været og er forsat nødt til at gentænke sig som sted, organisation og sin samfundsmæssige funktion. Artiklernes forfattere i dette nummer beskæftiger sig især med gentænkningen af museumsformidlingen og vidensindsamlingen ved hjælp af nye sociale medier. I de næste mange år vil den digitale museologi sætte sit præg på museerne og tilsvarende kulturarvsinstituioner og justere eller ligefrem ændre deres selvforståelse og samfundsmæssige opgaver; og teorier fra de beslægtede medievidenskaber vil give ny næring til museologiens begrebslige grundlag. Sigurjón Baldur Hafsteinsson og Ane Hejlskov Larsen 1. NODEM er en forkortelse for Nordic Digital Excellence in Museums og har holdt konferencer siden Konferencens hjemmeside for 2010 var: Senest set 13.maj Redaktionen for Nordisk Museologi takker for et godt samarbejde med NODEM-komiteen om publiceringen af udvalgte artikler fra konferencen. 4. Denne artikel findes ikke længere på nettet. Den var i 1999 en central artikel sammen med andre artikler af Steve Dietz.
3 NORDISK MUSEOLOGI , S Social Media and Community Involvement in Museums A case study of a local history wiki community DAGNY STUEDAHL* Abstract: The article focuses on a study of knowledge creation and organizing in a local history wiki. The background for this study was to understand how web 2.0 and social media might open new possibilities for museums to collaborate with communities and lay professionals in cultural heritage knowledge creation. Digital technologies provide tools that in many ways overcome challenges of physical collaboration between museums and amateurs. But technologies also bring in new aspects of ordering, categorizing and systematizing knowledge that illuminates the different institutional as well as professional frameworks that writing local historical knowledge into digital forms in fact represents. Key words: Digital cultural heritage, wiki and social media, collaborative knowledge creation, online local history. During the past twenty years, there has been considerable practical and theoretical interest in the relationship between heritage sites and communities, and we are facing many new initiatives undertaken by museums, archives and heritage institutions with a view to community involvement. These are profiling museums as responsive, democratic and reflective institutions that promote civil participation of communities actively (Stevens, Flinn and Shepherd 2010). The interest can be traced back to the promotion of community development ideas in the 1950s and 1960s, which was understood as an opportunity to involve civil society in public policy (Crooke 2007). In addition to creating social practices that could transcend institutional borders, the involvement of communities has also become an ethical issue in the ICOM Code of Ethics where museums are defined as being in the service of the community, respecting their interests and working in close collaboration with communities from which their collections originate (Crooke 2007). Social media have lately been embraced due to their potential to meet with this call for museums and heritage institutions to be responsive, democratic and reflective and subsequently take museum conversation beyond the museum (Black 2010). We find a considerable amount of practical and theoretical studies of the ways digital
4 DAGNY STUEDAHL 4 technologies are being used by museums to involve visitors and communities (Witcomb 1999 and 2003, Cameron and Kenderdine 2007, Parry 2009, Bowers et al. 2007). Many studies show how museums are comfortable using social networking technologies, such as Flickr, Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and blogging, and are welcoming the possibilities these provide to invite communities and participants into dialogues and sharing (Dicker 2010). Meanwhile, social media are yet to have a significant impact on museums overall strategic approach to communication and engagement with visitors, audiences and communities. Museum communication remains fundamentally one-to-many and has been slow to recognise visitors as active participants (Russo et al. 2007). Studies of blogs authored by curators suggest that such activities do not align easily with the physical practices of curators, which are still strongly linked to collections, objects and their stories (Dicker 2010). It seems that the integration of social media into museums curatorial and pedagogical practices preserves a situation in which these media are primarily used to engage visitors in short-term voting and rating, or to engage communities in collecting images. Accordingly, the social and institutional boundaries established by authority, authorship and ownership challenge the relationship between museums and its communities when social media are introduced (Russo et al. 2008). Meanwhile, numerous cultural heritage communities such as local history organizations and genealogical societies, organizations and NGO initiatives have integrated social media technologies into their practices. This article draws attention towards these cultural heritage communities outside, and interdependent of, the museums institutional frameworks and the way they integrate social media to invite members and registered users to contribute with their local knowledge as well as their stories of private experiences related to historical sites, objects and places. As introduction of social networking technologies may give communities a role in new relationships between museums, policy politics and the cultural heritage knowledge field (Stuedahl 2009), it becomes emergent to ask how communities use these technologies, and how social media support or constrain the interpretation and writing of history and heritage, as well as how they enhance the collaboration between community members. Local history organizations have taken interesting directions enhanced by wiki technologies, and this article reports from an ongoing study of a Norwegian Media WIKIbased site for the production and sharing of local historical knowledge from numerous districts and small towns around Norway. Launched in 2008, the project has collected over 9593 articles and photos, 1 written in collaboration between 700 lay and professional local historians who have registered into the wiki. This community collaboration provides an interesting case for studies of how wiki technologies frame knowledge building in heterogeneous communities and how the structuring, categorization, writing and production of representations of historical knowledge take place between amateurs and professionals within this framework. The article will seek to answer the following research questions: How does wiki technology enhance and constrain collaborative activities of writing history and categorizing historical site, artefacts, photos and events building historical knowledge and facts?
5 SOCIAL MEDIA AND COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN MUSEUMS As virtual communities in the cultural heritage sector are increasingly seen as supplementing institutional knowledge (Affleck and Kvan 2008), it seems imperative that collaborative approaches get explored in ways that allow institutions and communities to work on an increasingly even footing and to augment the leadership role played by community groups when establishing partnerships (Perkin 2010). The last research question therefore asks how existing wiki communities can inform involvement of communities in museums? CONCEPTS OF COMMUNITIES AND INVOLVEMENT The responsiveness museums have established to meet communities and the cultures they represent has taken many and diverging forms of re-contextualising and re-localizing cultural heritage objects and knowledge (Message 2006). Still, critical voices have been raised claiming museums are floating above the community, and are not as hospitable as we expect them to be (Hazan 2007). This points to the complex processes of boundary crossing and partial connections that collaboration between museum institutions and communities involves (Meyer 2010). These communities represent groups of people linked by a shared interest, who collaboratively build knowledge and negotiate facts about historical artefacts, sites and events outside the museum, but are still deeply related to the institutional frameworks that museums and heritage institutions represent. Also, the critique challenges the traditional understanding of museums as places that attempt to achieve some form of homogeneous order by classificatory, aesthetic or narrative means (Hetherington 1999), and push the issue of community involvement in museums into considering new forms of collaboration as well as re-contextualising museums knowledge responsibilities into new forms of engagement and involvement. The multiple forms of communities, community dynamics and social actions related to communities are highly linked to the character of community in question, as well as the perspectives used in studying them. Communities can be understood as social spaces for the formation of identity, they can be understood as tools in local and national government and they can be understood as a form of social action (Crooke 2007). The symbolic, the political and the civic communities are involved in societal and political processes at different levels, and as such ask distinguished and specific questions related to the type of knowledge building featured by community engagement. Models of engagement can be highly successful, but without caution can also result in unsustainable projects that might erode the trust of communities (Perkin 2010). Understanding the character of the community thus clearly deserves attention, as do its forms of engagement, how it comes to be assembled concerning the work, the politics, the materialities, the identities and the uncertainties that go into the formation and maintenance of a community (Meyer and Molyneux-Hodgson 2010). Moreover, involving communities also calls for a deeper understanding of the knowledge building processes that are prevalent and that might affect involvement endeavours. Understanding communities in the heritage sector might need other perspectives and approaches than studying for example the involvement of communities in health sector policy. The notion of involvement of 5
6 DAGNY STUEDAHL 6 communities also needs to be specified: is it part of a trajectory where communities are invited by museums into developing the knowledge frameworks for curating exhibition, or the societal activities related to visitor programmes, are communities involved in the collecting and documenting activities on a practical level, or are they involved in the indexing and categorizing of objects as well? These are only brief examples. There are several related concepts of communities that are relevant for an analysis of cultural heritage communities, such as the one we meet in the local history wiki in our study. Overall, the different concepts point to different goals and orientations of the community, such as the policy-relevant knowledge denoted by the concept of epistemic communities (Haas 1992), which is used in studies of how activist groups and self-help groups are emerging in the health sector (Akrich 2010). Or the more activity-based concept communities of practice, which is a concept that involves the knowledge production that takes place in informal settings inside and between collectives. Communities of practice have developed a repertoire of languages, routines, sensibilities, artefacts, tools, stories, styles, etc. in building a shared understanding of what their community is about (Lave and Wenger 1991). The notion of communities of practice has been used to describe the connections and collaboration between amateurs and professionals related to museums collection (Meyer 2010 and 2008) and exhibition development (Høg Hansen and Moussouri 2004), arguing that these also consist of partial connections in which participants not have clearly defined roles. These collaborations are based on the enrolment of lay people in the professional knowledge building in museums, and have been used as examples in the discussion of re-thinking museums in terms of their relation to wider society (Meyer 2008). Collaborations between lay people and professionals is boundary work, in which the practices of amateurs and professionals are articulated, performed and protected. Protection of time builds one practical example, where amateurs collaborate in a different time frame from professionals. Collaborating in their leisure time, amateurs seem to refuse deadlines and devices that bind them to the time regime of museums practices. For collaborators, deadlines can be disabling since they limit or at least clearly frame their activities. Also, amateurs spatial situatedness leads to located performances of (for example) collecting data as based on other criteria than those used by professionals. Private life and the practical restrictions this poses for collaboration are one concrete example (Meyer 2008). When the museum and the collaborators work together, different spaces, times and practices are brought together challenging the alignment and enrolment between amateurs and professionals. There are multiple, varied, more-or-lessengaged and inclusive ways of being located in collaborative participation (Lave and Wenger 1991, Meyer 2008). Involving collaborators in the scientific work of museums makes it clear that the connections between amateurs and professionals are fragile. When they do science, where they do science, how they do science and with what tools they do science is what differentiates collaborators from museum staff members and more generally, amateurs from professionals (Meyer 2008: 48). Involving communities in museums knowledge work may therefore produce demarcations between
7 SOCIAL MEDIA AND COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN MUSEUMS amateurs and professional that requires boundary work. Reports from projects that involve new communities, such as indigenous people, point to the inadequacy of standard collection documentation (see Verran et al. 2006, Verran 2007; Brown 2007; Witcomb 1997 and 2003; Cameron and Robinson 2007) as examples of how categorization involves boundary work when involving new collaborators. These studies also show how multiple categories can be integrated and play a role for involving new communities in the indexing. In historical studies of development of classification systems at Berkeley s Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, a more pragmatic view of categories as tools in boundary work is put forward. The studies show how understanding of categories might be heterogeneous in that they work as boundary objects, in the sense of flexible concepts that build a common framework for defined communities (Star and Griesemer 1989, Bowker and Star 1999). The development of categories in online cultural heritage communities, as well as the role of technology in this development, therefore makes an interesting entry point for understanding the role of technology as tools for boundary work and knowledge building between amateurs and professionals. We need deeper studies of how the online collaboration and knowledge building in fact takes place, to understand how time, space and materiality might have different shapes and roles in online communities of practice than in physical collaborations between museums and their communities. WIKI AND CULTURAL HERITAGE COMMUNITIES With the advent of digital technologies, new social practices emerge, such as user-led content creation. New forms of community develop that are defined through voluntary, temporary and tactical affiliations and that are held together through the mutual production and reciprocal exchange of knowledge (Jenkins 2006). In what has been defined as convergence culture (ibid), everyone is a participant, although participants may have different degrees of status and influence. As with understanding online communities, understanding members as participants that are both producers and consumers of content has caused the evolvement of new concepts to capture the co-creative engagement of online community members: Producers engage not in a traditional form of content production, but in produsage the collaborative and continuous building and extending of existing content in pursuit of further improvement (Bruns 2008: 21). In Wikipedia, the produsage principle becomes clear in the work with unfinished articles in a continuing process. Related to wiki communities, the concept of produsage speaks directly to the perceived affordances of wikis as emerging knowledge spaces that are collaboratively created and edited, and where the form of knowledge representations significantly departs from encyclopedia, which encapsulate the current state of accepted knowledge. The content creation of wiki spaces is an always incomplete and continuing process that relies on constructive participation. Contrary to the discussion of encyclopedia, this builds an ability to arrive at a full and complete definition of any topic (Bruns 2008). The concepts of produsage and co-creation may not give a basis for understanding the novelty of knowledge production in online cultural heritage communities per se, given that historical knowledge and memory have always been cumulative and modified through 7
8 DAGNY STUEDAHL 8 articulatory practices that stand in relation to the context, as for example the technology (Reading 2003). Meanwhile, online heritage and the writing of history in wiki form require structuring and categorizing the past, and give room for establishing new structures that might give communities opportunities to develop their own indexing of knowledge. WIKI COMMUNITIES BRIDGING EXPERT AND LAY KNOWLEDGE IN LOCAL HISTORY The wiki community we are studying was launched by the Norwegian Institute of Local History in This is an independent public institution partly financed by the Norwegian Ministry of Culture. Founded in 1955, the institute has kept its purpose of promoting local and regional activity through providing services, research and documentation with a focus that spans from local historical interest and engagement to professional and academic interest. The institute collaborates closely with the Norwegian Association of Local History, founded in 1920 and established by 421 local history associations, comprising 80,000 individual members among local historians in Norway. The political and historical background and goal for the community of local historians evolving at the local history wiki is therefore closely related to the Norwegian modern local history movement that took shape in the early 20th century. The cultural and ideological background can be traced back to the agrarian populist and national democratic movement of the time (Alsvik 1993). There was a reinforced local history trend from the 1970s onwards, connected to the general upsurge of (leftist) populism, regionalism and the emphasis on history from below (Burke 1992). The Institute is connected to most history departments of universities and colleges in Norway, since staff historians have been engaged in major local history projects. In Norway, the publishing of Bygde books (book collections rendering the history of the rural, urban district or town) or the farm and family history accounting for individual farms and families are financed by public authorities of the municipalities and mostly written by professionals. In addition, approximately 300 local history annuals in which local history amateurs dominate are published every year. The story of how the Norwegian Institute of Local History tried to provide technology to enhance community activities in several iterations informed us that efforts are needed to customize and match technology to actual community needs, ease of use and providing means for learning and development. As early as 2003, they opened a site on the Internet that was originally thought of as a site that could open up for collaboration with, and between, different institutions. This initiative was met with low activity and the institute reorganized the site to present the activities of the institute. In 2006, the institute started a local history network to connect people working with local history projects. These projects shared the common need for a methodology and solving practical problems. However, this initiative ended up being one-way interaction; the institute serving other institutions, organizations and people. While considering re-editing the Norwegian Historical Lexica, the institute started to develop the idea of using a wiki format for organizing the contents. In 2008, they launched lokalhistoriewiki.no, which now has close to 900 registered users. Unlike a forum,
9 SOCIAL MEDIA AND COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN MUSEUMS participating in a wiki requires that users are registered as clearly identified individuals. Individuals cannot participate in a wiki discussion without being registered. In addition, wiki collaboration is based on participants having different roles. These roles are defined by 4 bureaucrats for the wiki administration, 17 technical administrators and 12 vocational supervisors who help users with questions of method, defining source qualities, etc. as well as license questions, editing or closing pages these being just some examples of the functions involved. Reporting from the first steps of this longitudinal study of how the local history wiki is developing, this article will focus on how the co-construction of knowledge is evolving in relation to the development of concepts and categories that structure the wiki space. The wiki contains an own space for categorizing discussions. We have chosen an excerpt that evolved during summer 2010, in which professionals and lay historians negotiate about categories for ships, boats and marine vessels. The discussion thread was started by one of the professional historians, beginning in June 2010 and stating that categorizing boat types is challenging, because most formal categories are built on categories in the registration systems provided by the Directorate of Fisheries, which does not cover all the historical boats and vessels in the Norwegian tradition. Pointing to the fact that in the future boats might be described in numerous articles in the wiki, the collaborator (here anonymised as AK) states that it might be wise to start making a system of categories that does not need to be reorganized. AK notes that a group from the west coast of Norway has started to build a structure of categories based on a registration structure on fishing boats provided by the local museum, and publishes a hyperlink to the page as a proposal. This structure contains information about localities in the municipality, formal category, attribute, name of the boat related to type of operation, name of type of boat, materials used in construction, building year, size, volume, name, year in which the motor was built, etc. The structure clearly captured both the material and the functioning aspects of the boat. All in all, the proposal suggested providing 15 subcategories for categorizing boats. The request was immediately responded to by the administrators (anonymized as OU, SJ and IT), who discussed how the structure of categories could be built in more simple ways. Suggesting that marine vessels might be the main category, and then start building subcategories, the administrator OU tries to keep the amount of categories on a decent level. After some discussion with his fellow administrators, he suggests opening up for categorizing vessels after type. SJ asks how the type of vessels would identify the material character, the function and the use of the vessel. At this point, one of the collaborators points to the many vessels that are characterized by their functions (cargo ships, oil tankers, service ships, etc.). At the end of the day the administrator OU proposes categorizing vessels by type, function, progress and construction. Next day, the collaborator OH (the member of the community on the west coast that started the discussion, and also an active amateur expert in marine history) posts a new question into the discussion. He asks about using a structure of categories that is well known and widely used among people on the coast as well as in maritime communities. He points out that the index used by the Directorate is based 9
10 DAGNY STUEDAHL 10 on well-known acronyms that have been used for 100 years, and that these concepts are integrated in the category system that his community has developed in collaboration with the coastal museum. He points to the importance of the system of categories used in the wiki being developed close to the categories that are well known and used in communities and museums outside the wiki because, as he argues, it will be important that the concepts are used in their natural form in writing and storytelling. The post from OH resulted in the administrator IT suggesting categorizing on the basis of type, function, material and construction. This was responded to by Å, arguing that this system will neglect the open traditional boats of Norwegian maritime history and suggesting that the categorizing enrols type, function, material, construction and rig. Å also ends his post by pointing out that the wiki should develop according to normal thesaurus practice and that it is important to clarify this early in the wiki discussion. Two days later, the administrator IT asked whether the categorizing could start on a simple level to be extended when it is clear what needs people in the wiki community have. Å answers by asking what would be fruitful for the wiki seen in relation to the concepts used by management institutions such as the Norwegian Directorate for Cultural Heritage and the Cultural Heritage Act. The discussion thread ends here, and at the moment of analyzing this category discussion three months later, the lokalhistoriewiki.no has built the structures of categories related to vessels based on locality, vessel according to period and vessels according to type, and boat types. DISCUSSION While the open structure of the wiki platform clearly provides the technological means that enhance the negotiations crossing time, making the multiple contributions visible, providing access to participate in discussions from multiple viewpoints it still seems that the administrators are given an important degree of authority, in that it is their responsibility to find solutions that solve the challenges of establishing a category structure that is simple and easy to use for all. It is also their job to find a granularity of categories professional enough to provide a conceptual level that makes the wiki sufficiently specific for professional knowledge building. The vocational supervisors appointed by the Institute of Local History have the role of checking the articles to adhere to professional criteria, and they have competencies in history and/or in related fields. Supervisors can also discuss relevance, use of methods and questions related to resources with authors of articles in the wiki, and will check referencing, validity and source criticism related to published articles. The technical administrators have the role of adjusting wiki technology, helping new users and following up on new publications in the wiki. They can delete or re-publish pages, they can lock pages, they can block individual users, they edit messages in the system and they can import from other wikis. As such, they have a double role as both technical and administrative gatekeepers, and their boundary work contains technical and systemic challenges as well as professional evaluations. The discussion of categorizing boats, ships and vessels mentioned above shows the importance of administrators (IT, S and OU) and supervisors (AK), who started the
11 SOCIAL MEDIA AND COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN MUSEUMS discussion. We also see how the collaborators (OH, GE and Å) participate by providing their knowledge in the field. Interestingly, what we do see in this thread is that collaborators are not in the periphery of practice instead they are in the centre of the discussion, providing their experience and practices as well as negotiating the quality level of categorizing a new field in the wiki. Being lay people, they demonstrate a high level of competence, and they also show how their competencies lean on formal indexical systems used by maritime institutions and museums. The argument of using existing indexing because this is what is well known to people indicates that the boundary between lay and professional knowledge in this field is not important for practical reasons. Rather than observing a boundary between lay and professionals in the categorizing of vessels, we observe a boundary related to the multiple requirements that are related to the wiki. We see how the role of wiki administrators to keep the amount of categories at a low level collides with the shared responsibility they have with the collaborators and supervisors to keep the quality of the wiki at a high professional level. As such, we need to study the practices of administrators of wiki in their endeavours to align conflicting interests and controversies to understand how the writing of local history and heritage crosses boundaries between communities, museums, institutions and technology. Our observation of the negotiation of categories tells us that in fact we observe several communities of practice that are involved in building the knowledge space of the wiki; the administrators, the vocational supervisors and the collaborators. Each of these communities is involved in knowledge development with other communities outside the wiki. Developing a policy of categorization for the wiki therefore becomes a complex alignment of diverging practices and considerations. The participants in this discussion thread are well aware that the outcome of the discussion, achieving a solid tree of categories that will structure future articles about marine vessels, will in fact decide whether this wiki will be interesting for coastal historians and historians of coastal culture as well as for communities and museums outside these. Because they are in positions of responsibility regarding the growth of the wiki, the participants in this discussion are therefore also aware that the discussion has a policy level. As such, the wiki community could be defined as an epistemic community that has a recognized expertise and competence in a particular domain and an authoritative claim to policy-relevant knowledge (Haas 1992), in which normative and principled beliefs inform the administrators, according to prescribed qualities of a wiki. The knowledge building on lokalhistoriewiki.no can as such be understood as being based on negotiating practices between several diverging communities the community of historians as well as the community of wiki administrators. These negotiations become on the one hand an epistemic discussion in which the quality of knowledge structure will be an important part of building trust for new participants to become involved in the wiki community, as well as for building the wiki as a knowledge space that connects well with diverse communities. Apart from this constraint, we also see that the collaborative negotiations on lokalhistoriewiki.no enhance discussions that illuminate relations to institutional frameworks and to official knowledge systems as well as to multiple community knowledge. This might characterize 11
12 DAGNY STUEDAHL 12 the cultural heritage field apart from the knowledge production in other wiki spaces, such as Wikipedia, and we need further studies to understand if and how cultural heritage communities differ in their uptake of technology and how this gives new opportunities for knowledge creation and sharing. For now, only brief contours of a complex and intertwined network of relations between actors, institutions and communities are drawn that calls for deeper understanding of the epistemic collaborations and reliance in the cultural heritage field. For museums to find entry points into these community negotiations, it is essential to understand what role they may fill and it might be necessary to turn the question of involvement around, asking how museums can be involved in the knowledge building of networked communities. NOTES 1. Statistics from January REFERENCES Affleck, J. and Kvan, T A Virtual Community as the Context for Discursive Interpretation: A Role in Cultural Heritage Engagement. In: International Journal of Heritage Studies Vol. 14, No.3 pp Akrich, M From Communities of Practice to Epistemic Communities: Health Mobilizations on the Internet. Sociological Research Online 15(2)10. Visited August Alsvik, O. 1993: Local history in Norway. The Norwegian Institute of Local History and Local History in Norway / By Ola Alsvik. - Oslo : NLI, ppp ISBN Published online at english/local-his.html. Visited September Black, G Embedding civil engagement in museums. In: Museum Management and Curatorship, 25:2, pp Bowers, J., Bannon, L., Fraser, M., Hindmarsh, J., Benford, S., Heath C., Taxén, G. and Ciolfi, L From the Disappearing Computer to Living Exhibitions: Shaping Interactivity in Museum Settings. In Streitz, N., Kameas, A. and Mavrommati, I. (eds.). The Disappearing Computer: Interaction Design, System Infrastructures and Applications for Smart Environments. Springer, Heidelberg. LNCS pp Bowker, G.C. and S.L. Star Sorting things out. Classifications and its consequences. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. Burke, P. (ed.) New Perspectives on Historical Writing. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, Brown, Deidre Te Ahu Hiko: Digital Cultural Heritage and Indigeneous Objects, People and Environments. In: Cameron, F., & Kenderdine, S. (eds.). (2007). Theorizing Digital Cultural Heritage. A Critical Discourse. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press pp Bruns, A Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage. New York: Peter Lang. Cameron, Fiona, Kenderdine, Sarah Introduction. In Cameron and Kenderdine (Eds.). (2007). Theorizing Digital Cultural Heritage. A Critical Discourse. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press pp Cameron, Fiona and Robinson, Helena Digital knowledgescapes: Cultural, Theoretical, Practical, and Usage Issues Facing Museum Collection Databases in a Digital Epoch. In: Cameron, F., & Kenderdine, S. (eds.). (2007). Theorizing
13 SOCIAL MEDIA AND COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN MUSEUMS Digital Cultural Heritage. A Critical Discourse. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press pp Crooke, Elisabeth Museums and Community. Ideals, issues and challenges. Milton Park, Routledge. Dicker, E The Impact of Blogs and Other Social Media on the Life of a Curator. Archives & Museum Informatics: Proceedings Museums and the Web 2010: ker/dicker.html#ixzz0suhez1. Visited July 6, Hazan, Susan 2007: A crisis of authority: New Lamps of Old. In: Cameron and Kenderdine; Theorizing Digital Cultural Heritage. MIT Press, pp Haas, P.M Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination. International Organization, Vol.46, no. 1 pp Hetherington, K., (1999), From Blindness to blindness: museums, heterogeneity and the subject. In: Law, J. and Hassard, J., (eds.), Actor Network Theory and After, Blackwell Publishers / The Sociological Review, Oxford, pp Høg Hansen, Anders and Moussouri, Theano Fuzzy boundaries: communities of practice and exhibition teams in European natural history museums. Museums and Society (3) pp Jenkins, Henry Convergence Culture. Where Old and New Media Collide. New York, NYU Press. Message, K New Museums and the making of knowledge. Berg, Oxford. Meyer, M On the boundaries and partial connections between amateurs and professionals. Museums and Society 2008, 6 (1) pp Meyer, M Caring for Weak Ties The Natural History Museum as a Place for Encounter Between Amateurs and Professional Science. Sociological Research Online 15(2)10. Visited August Meyer, M. and Molyneux-Hodgson, S Introduction: The Dynamics of Epistemic Communities. Sociological Research Online 15(2)10. Visited August Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991) Situated Learning. Legitimate peripheral participation, Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press. Parry, R. (ed.) Museums in a Digital Age, Leicester Readers in Museum Studies, Routledge. Perkin, C Beyond the rhetoric: negotiating the politics and realizing the potential of community-driven heritage engagement. In: International Journal of Heritage Studies, 16:1, pp Russo, A., Watkins, J., Kelly, L and Chan, S Social media and cultural interactive experiences in museums. In Nordisk Museologi 2007, vol. 1, pp Russo, A., J. Watkins, L. Kelly and S. Chan Participatory Communication with Social Media. Curator. 51. pp Published online January From Visited June 5, Stevens, M., Flinn, A., Shepherd, E. 2010: New frameworks for community engagement in the archive sector: from handling over to handing on. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 16:1, pp Star, S. L. and Griesemer, J. (1989). Institutional Ecology, Translations and Boundary objects: Amateurs and Professionals in Berkeley s Museum of Vertebrate Zoology Social Studies of Science Vol. 19. pp Stuedahl, Dagny Digital Cultural Heritage Engagement: A New Research Field for Ethnology. Ethnologia Scandinavica 2009; Volume 39. pp
14 DAGNY STUEDAHL 14 Verran, Helen, Christie, Michael, Anbins-King, Bryce, van Weeren, Trevor, Yunupingu, Wulumdhuna (2006). Designing Digital Knowledge Management Tools with Aboriginal Australians. Performative knowledge making. Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia DDKMT- AA.pdf. Visited April Verran, Helen Designing digital knowledge management tools with Aboriginal Australians. In: Digital Creativity, Volume 18, Issue 3 September 2007, pp Witcomb, Andrea The end of the mausoleum: Museums in the age of electronic communication. In Museums and the web. Los Angeles, CA: archives and museums informatics. Visited June Witcomb, A Museums as cultural brokers: Producing rather than representing communities in B. Henson (ed): Exploring culture and community for the 21st century: Global Arts Link: a new model for public art museums. Ipswich, Queensland: Global Arts Link 1999 pp Witcomb, A Re-Imagining the Museum: Beyond the Mausoleum. London and New York: Routledge, *Dagny Stuedahl, dr. polit og MA I folkloristikk ved Universitetet i Oslo. Adresse: Universitetet i Oslo, P.o.box 1161, Blindern, 0375 Oslo
15 NORDISK MUSEOLOGI , S Challenges for the Technological Augmentation of Open-Air Museums: Bridging Buildings, Artefacts and Activities LUIGINA CIOLFI* AND MARC MCLOUGHLIN* Abstract: This paper reports research and design work focused on enhancing visitor experience of an open-air museum, Bunratty Folk Park in County Clare (Ireland). We will discuss how existing work in the domain of museum technologies has so far dealt little with open-air sites. Our approach aimed at developing themes of participation and visitor contribution at a site that differs from indoor exhibitions on the grounds of size, structure and material on display. We will describe the background research and design research towards an interactive multi-device installation entitled Reminisce for Bunratty Folk Park, informed by a focus centred on visitor activities and their experience of place. We will then provide examples of visitors interactions with Reminisce in order to show how this approach can lead to successful design interventions. Key words: Open-air museums, interaction design, place, interactive installation. We present a design case that was conducted as part of a feasibility study for the introduction of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) at museums and other visitor attractions. An integral part of the project was the investigation of current visitor experience at one particular site, and the development of design recommendations and scenarios. The project was conducted in partnership with business/marketing experts and telecommunications engineers. Our role was that of envisioning new tools and services that would bring added value to the visitor experience of a heritage site. The particular perspective we adopt is that of Human-Computer Interaction and Interaction Design, whereby technology is always designed from the point of view, needs and requirements of users and participants. The design approach includes examining the nature of visitor movements, social interaction and participation in the visit to a particular site, and based on this understanding developing ideas for technological augmentation. The project s initial timeframe of twenty months allowed for a substantial amount of empirical fieldwork at Bunratty Folk Park, an Irish open-air museum displaying historical buildings, and for a number of design workshops. Subsequently, a
16 LUIGINA CIOLFI AND MARC MCLOUGHLIN 16 follow-up project grant made it possible to develop and deploy an interactive installation on-site for the purposes of user evaluation. In the follow-up grant, we conducted a series of design workshops inspired by our fieldwork in the Folk Park, followed building incremental prototypes leading to the final interactive installation, that we titled Reminisce. Reminisce experimented with integrating multiple interactive components (including mobile phones, audio displays and tangible user interfaces) into a visiting trail through the Park. In the following sections, we will present the research grounding for our work, followed by an overview of results of empirical work conducted on site to show how themes of participation are crucial when understanding the visitor experience at Bunratty Folk Park and at open-air museums in general. We will subsequently describe the design work carried out for the site, highlighting the novel interactional qualities that our final installation, Reminisce, offered to visitors, and conclude the paper with some discussion of the results emerging from testing Reminisce with the public. TECHNOLOGY FOR OPEN-AIR MUSEUMS: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES Open-air museums are a very popular visitor attraction worldwide1. They are interesting settings for technological augmentation, as they retain many of the qualities of traditional museums (organised in roomsized exhibits), but also present different challenges, such as their out-of-doors nature, the different physical path and time frame of the visit, the importance of location and of movement between different buildings and corners of the landscape. Place making and dwelling are also important aspects of the visit to an open-air museum, as these sites exhibit buildings and man-made landscapes that can be inhabited by the visitors, who can also relate to the original inhabitants and their way of life in that environment. Moreover, the individual objects are displayed in a richer context (compared to the standard exhibit case in a gallery, which is by its own nature displaced from its original and/or appropriate context) making the connection between lived place experience and artefacts on display more evident than what can be achieved in selfcontained exhibits. Both the HCI/Interaction Design and museum communities have produced extensive literature documenting case studies of the introduction of interactive technologies in museums and exhibition sites (see for example Grinter et al., 2002; Sparacino et al., 2000; Hsi and Fait, 2005, etc. to mention but very few well-known examples). However there is a need to extend current theoretical and practical approaches to guide such design interventions when considering sites that are spatially distributed and that are structured in ways different from the traditional one-room, oneexhibit approach typical of traditional museums. Whereas the majority of research on the use of portable devices (mobile guides, in this case) refers to indoor exhibition sites (see for example Aoki et al. 2001), and recently about the use of visitors own mobile phones in these settings (Samis, 2007), some work has been conducted with respect of outdoor visitor experiences, such as field trails in cities or at other sites, rather than open-air museums proper. Recent endeavours have focused on the use of smart phones in support of outdoor visitor
17 CHALLENGES FOR THE TECHNOLOGICAL AUGMENTATION OF OPEN-AIR MUSEUMS trails. Paterson et al. (2010) developed a Viking Ghost Hunt game trail for the City of Dublin, based on GPS technology, offering players the overlay of a playful theme for their visit to the city centre. Another example is the Culloden Battlefield visiting aid (Pfeifer et al., 2009), which was developed with the goal of making GPS guide tools a commercial success, offering little in the way of reflection over user needs and design process. The visit as game scenario is not the only one to have been explored. Another significant area to have been researched is that of the social dimension of the visit, and of the sharing of individual experiences to some extent. In their paper describing mobile shared visitor experiences at London Zoo, O Hara et al. (2007) discuss aspects of bookmarking and socially sharing relevant milestones during the visit, arguing how incorporating the social aspect in the design of a personal device helps foster engagement and social interaction. Collaboration was also inscribed in the design of city games (for example Brown et al., 2005) which had the goal of not guiding participants, but rather to extend their experience of a city with an added layer of social interaction and engagement. The visitors own active role and contribution to outdoor trails has also recently been discussed. Giaccardi and Palen (2008) reflect on the role of cross-media interaction in the experience of a community project that allowed participants to overlay their physical journeys in an area with sound snapshots for reflection and sharing. Similarly, Walker (2007) discusses social sharing of the visit in MyArt Space, where tagged objects that participants selected in their visit to several museums become a personalised history of the visit. The majority of these examples have employed mainly mobile solutions for use in visitor trails, often incorporating elements of collaboration and sharing. Others have looked at alternative technologies. Pletinckx et al. (2000) and Schnädelbach et al. (2002), for example, suggest Augmented Reality and Mixed Reality as appropriate technologies to support visitor interpretation of outdoor sites, where visitors could operate a VR scope to view reconstructions of buildings in the surroundings of the viewing station. Of course, these technological aids are limited with respect to their position on the site, not really providing support throughout an extended visit. Most of the settings featuring in the examples above are not curated. The only two examples of installations documented in the HCI community that were specifically aimed at open-air museums were the photo-tagging system developed for the Valle Crucis Abbey in Wales (Baber et al, 2008), which involved visitors taking pictures of the site during the visit, but which supported all interaction postvisit through social tagging; and Kylä, a roomsized exhibition on the theme of historic photographs and folk music for the village of Viena Carelia in Finland (Ilmonen, 2007), where visitors can trigger the display of visual and auditory content by approaching sensitive corners of the space by candlelight. Kylä does not allow for any collaborative interaction and works on a standard information-delivery mode, although the input device is quite novel. Overall, there is a need for a more focused view on open-air museums, which are a common attraction in many countries, and could hugely benefit from recent developments in location-based services, geotagging and powerful personal devices as described in the brief review we have presented above. 17
18 LUIGINA CIOLFI AND MARC MCLOUGHLIN 18 Fig. 1. Some images of Bunratty Folk Park. Also, there is a need to consider solutions alternative to mobile devices only, as certain limitations of mobile technology have been highlighted isolation, detachment from the setting and could be overcome. Mobile devices alone might cause people to detach themselves from the exhibits, and often the mobile content provided is disconnected from the place. Open-air museums offer an interesting environment for the consideration of how mobile personal devices could be used in synergy with standalone interactive installations and information points to provide a more seamless visitor experience: to not have visitors concentrate only on the mobile device, but to keep the focus on the site. The features of open-air museums already include elements of active engagement, which could be extended and augmented through design: for example the role of human animators showcasing activities and engaging visitors in conversation and discussion are a common feature, important to draw the spectator in. Open-air museums are ideal sites to experiment with user participation, building on the interaction with animators, the experience of inhabiting the exhibit and the multi-sensory aspect of the visit that sometimes lack in other settings. Our research differs from other work both on the explicit focus on understanding the situated visitor experience at an open-air
19 CHALLENGES FOR THE TECHNOLOGICAL AUGMENTATION OF OPEN-AIR MUSEUMS museum for the purpose of design, and on the attention towards participatory elements that engage visitors. In the following section, we describe the empirical work we conducted at Bunratty Folk Park and discuss some main findings that informed our design. EMPIRICAL WORK AT BUNRATTY FOLK PARK Bunratty Folk Park recreates aspects of Irish life of the past 2 centuries through a collection of 32 original historic dwellings. At Bunratty, the landscape, the buildings, their contents and the activities taking place in them thanks to human animators, are all elements of a complex display that visitors encounter in their wanderings around the Folk Park (Fig. 1). Here we provide an outline of the main findings of the extensive field studies at the site. This is important to show what aspects of the visitor experience at Bunratty Folk Park represent design opportunities, and to provide a description of the context in which our design was deployed and evaluated. The overall qualities of the visit are different from enclosed museums and resemble more closely outdoor experiences such as city visits At the same time, however, the content of the site is of a museological nature and so it should be approached when thinking of design interventions: dwell time, distance between the exhibits, switch in proportions between sites and between indoors and outdoors (e.g. visiting a building entails both observing its architecture as a whole, but also exploring its contents, the décor, the objects, etc.) are all crucial aspects to be considered when thinking of additional layers of digital content and services. We have also noted interesting challenges in the curatorial and interpretation practices of such a large, diverse and multifaceted site. METHODOLOGY In our work, we adopt a theoretical and methodological approach focusing on situated experience. This presents some common points with the tradition of ethnomethodological studies of social interaction and collaboration around exhibits, that highlight the social nature of visits, and articulate the unfolding of visitor activities surrounding exhibits, with an eye to inform or evaluate design (Brown, 2005; Vom Lehn et al., 2001; Galani and Chalmers, 2002). This approach contrasts with more traditional visitor studies, where an exhibit is measured in terms of its ability to attract visitors to stop in front of it and the length of time it is able to hold them there the dwell time. However, these examples of work do not display a grounding in the physical nature of exhibitions, leaving out contextual and situational factors that have an impact on how a site is approached: the material qualities of a site, its sensory characteristics and its cultural identity. In our work, we look at visitor experiences as they are grounded in the experience of place: the lived experience of the physical world at personal, social, cultural and physical levels (Ciolfi and Bannon, 2005). We feel that in the case of this particular project, it was important to approach the study of Bunratty Folk Park with a view to understanding situated experience. Our approach is also inspired by the Falk and Dierking model of interactive museum experience (Falk and Dierking, 1992), in the sense that each layer of place experience (which can be compared to the contexts outlined by Falk and Dierking) is continuously constructed by the visitors: Whatever the 19
20 LUIGINA CIOLFI AND MARC MCLOUGHLIN 20 visitor does attend to is filtered through the personal context, mediated by the social context, and embedded within the physical context (Falk and Dierking, 1992, p. 4). The museum experience is at the intersection between these dimensions, and all of them play an equal role, and good design should be mindful of them all. We applied such frameworks to our work in Bunratty Folk Park, where the importance of including the aspects of the physical context in the visitor experience is paramount, including movement through the site, dwell time and the possibility of physically entering the objects on display (the buildings). In order to collect data, we employed qualitative methodologies. We conducted observation sessions, both documenting visitor behaviour at particular sites that are attracting notable hubs of activity (such as, for example, the Golden Vale Farmhouse, where baking demonstrations take place regularly), and accounting for the entire trail around the Park. This was accomplished by shadowing several groups of visitors as well as engaging them in informal conversations. We also involved the Fig. 2. Different types of spatial environments and different levels of crowdedness at Bunratty Folk Park.