Blanco White's Anglophilia,Translationsand Poetry: A Self-exüed Writerin England

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Størrelse: px
Begynne med side:

Download "Blanco White's Anglophilia,Translationsand Poetry: A Self-exüed Writerin England"

Transkript

1 Blanco White's Anglophilia,Translationsand Poetry: A Self-exüed Writerin England Juande DiosTORRALBO CABALLERO Universidadde Córdoba ABSTRACT ThispaperstudiesJosé María Blanco WhiteasatranslatorofEnglishpoetryandasapioneeringfigure intheculturalfusión betweenspanishand Englishleters.From hisbeginningsinsevilüan Enlightment hedecidedtoexilein England wherehededicatedpartofhistimetodiferentinterculturalandcultural tasks,specificalytotranslation.blanco White'sanglophiliaencompasesboth writingdirectlyin English as welashiscontributionsto Englishculturethrough diferentjournalsoftheera.thereisaglaring consonancebetweenhislifeand workthatrepresentsaharmoniousunity whichperfectlyilustratesthe natureofhisera. Keywords: Translation Studies,Literary Translation,Interculturalism, Romanticism, Blanco White, Shakespeare RESUMEN Estetrabajo estudiaajosé María Blanco Whitecomotraductordepoesíainglesaycomo unafigura pioneraenlafusiónculturalentrelasletrasinglesasyespañolas.desdesusiniciosenlailustraciónsevilana,decidióexiliarseeninglatera donde dedicó partedesutiempo adiferentestareasculturalese interculturales,concretamente alatraducción.laanglofilia de Blanco Whiteaunatantolaescritura directamenteeningléscomosuscontribucionesalaculturainglesaatravésdediferentesperiódicosdela época.hayunanotablecomuniónentresuvidaysuobralacualrepresentaunaunidadarmoniosaque ilustraperfectamentelanaturalezadesutiempo. Palabrasclave:Estudiosdetraducción,Traducciónliteraria,Interculturalidad,Romanticismo,Blanco White,Shakespeare. 1. Intoduction José María Blanco's multicultural nature wilbe discused herethrough an examination ofhis work on English poetsfrom diferent eras, mainlyfrom the Elizabethantothe Augustanperiod.Hisknowledgeofthe Englishlanguageandhis familiarity withthe British clasicsencouraged hisacademiccoleaguesto explore Englishliterature. Blanco wasresponsible,forinstance,for Lista'sand Reinoso's imitation of Miltonian versein apoetry competition whichtheythemselves had organized.1 It wasthanksto Blancothatlistatranslated andemployed Alexander Pope's TheDunríadasthe basisforhisimperiodelaestupidez(1798).inthe next 1 Thereader mayfindinformation aboutthiscontest,along withotherliteraryandculturalfacts,inan article which wehavepublished\x\alfinge20,2008,

2 TORRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios section weshalsehow BlancoalsobroughtPope'spoetic worktolifein Spanish, albeitinanindirectway. As weshalsee,afterhavingspent morethanadecadeon Englishsoil,Blanco continuedto honehispoeticskils.circa 1823hehad dedicated himselftoliterary translation.itwasduringthistimethathedidhisfirstdabblingsatwritingpoetryin English. 2. Somenotesofhisbeginningsasatranslator Blanco prepared atranslation of Germán poetry,though doing soindirectly, translatingfrom the French.The poem was Gesner's"Canción dela alborada" ("Songofthe Dawn").This wasoneofhisfirstatemptsatthekindoftranslationat whichhe wouldexcelduringhistimein England.Beforeembarkingonhisjoutmeyto Londonhe would workonan Englisheclogue,butinthesame waythatherecreated Gesner'sverse:throughindirecttranslation,asweshalseshortly. Thus,from amongthe worksofhisyouthafreversetranslation ofaneclogue standsout.this wasthefirsttranslation heperformedfrom English,andityielded some110lines.thesevilian'sentidedhis work"églogaal Mesías"theoriginaltext being AlexanderPope's"An Eclogueforthe Mesiah."Pope,inturn,hadbasedhis workon Virgil.Blanco wasonlyaware,ashelamentedinhisnotes,2 ofatranslation infrenchprose.blanco3(1994:133)wrotethefolowinginthe manuscript: Theeclogue whichipresenttothe Academyistakenfrom one writenbythe English poet Pope, whoimitated Virgil's Polio, whointurn had borowed from various thoughtsfoundinthe Prophecy ofisaiah, which headorned and extendedto his liking.idon'tknow whethertocalithispieceof mineatranslation oranimitation, becausetheterm translationsuggestslesinventionandoriginalworkthanishouldlike, whiletheterm imitationisto vague and doesnotconvey acertainloyaltytothe originalwhichihave maintainedthroughout.ishouldn'tliketoappropriateanything whichisthe work ofanother,butneithershouldiliketo bedeprived ofanything belongingto me,especialyinthisgenreofworksin whichselfesteem issoesential- Iknow notwhy,but morethaninothers.itistruethatin myecloguetherearefew thoughts whicharenotatleastsuggestedinpope's work,butihavethroughoutgiven givethesethoughtsatwist,exhibitingacertainkindoforiginality. Inthispreliminaryreferencethetranslator makesanoteofhisefortsandsubtly presentssomeideasonthetheoryoftranslation,ashedoesn'tknow whetherto opt fortheconceptof"translation"ortheterm "imitation." Later,when hecompares someexcerptsheañudestopaintingtoexplainhistaskintheseterms:"he whois versedinthecraftofpoeticimages wilseinalmostthesame wordsavibrantand grand paintingratherthan one with no movement,and oflessplendor." Blanco 2 Thereisamanuscriptcopyoftheecloguecreated byjosé María BlancoattheIibraryofthe Hispanic Society of Americain New York.Theoriginal manuscriptiskeptatsevile's UniversityIibrary and features,asgarnicaexplains,verycarefulandcalculated writing. 3 Wehavetranslatedthesequotationsadhocforthispaper. 232

3 Blanco Wbite'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry:A Self-exiledWriterinEngland justifiestheselectivenesofhispoem,statdngthat"ishould notethateverythingin the English versión doesnotappearin myecloguebecause,asineverrealysetout totransíateit,iwasfretoomitwhatifoundleastrelevant." Pope created his workin 1712 and entitledit"messiah. ASacred Eclogue in Imitation of Virgil's Polio." Alexanderinsertedtextsfrom the Latin poet's eclogue IV,sprinklinginlinesfrom theprophetisaiah,andthe worktotals 108linesin al. Blancoinhisversiónomitsthirtyandtranslates72.ThisconfirmsforusthatSevilian cítelesfirstcarneinto contact with Englishliteraturethrough French translations. Blanco'spoem (1994: )isentitled'"Églogaal Mesías." Wepresentheresome passages,bothfrom thespanishas welasfrom theoriginalenglish work: Cantad,ohvos,delasagradaElía Vírgenesventurosas,dulceshimnos, Entantoquelasselvasylosprados Escuchande mivozenardecida Losecos,quejamásenpradooselva Talaltosfueron depastorcantados. Ye NymphsofSolyma!beginthesong: Toheav'nlythemessublimetstrainsbelong. The mosyfountains,andthesylvanshades, ThedreamsofPindusandth'Aonian maids, Delightno more Othou myvoiceinspire Whotouch'dIsaiahhalow'dlipswithfire! Thetranslator's poeticinspiration, which reflectsthe bucolic, Arcadiantrendin vogue duringthe period,can be perceivedfrom thestart. We ad herethrelines which Blancoinsertedinhand-writen notes: Cielos,hacedbajarvuestrorocío, Quela Naturalezaposternada Laaguardayaensilenciorespetuoso 'Ye Heavens!From highthedewynéctarpour, Andinsoftsilenceshedthekindlyshow'r! Blanco White'sversiónfeaturesthrelines whiletheoriginalenglishhadtwo, thoughheemployedthesamehendecasylabic meter. Withsomeelementschanged,it wouldseem thatthe English wasnotthedirectsourceofthetranslation,andthatthe Seviliancreated hisversiónusinganintermediatingtextin French. Inajournalpublishedin London, Variedades(I,31-38),wefindapaperby White entitled "RetazosdelanovelaintituladaIvanhoe".The explanation heincluded denotesthatblancocould havetranslated WalterScot'sbook,butheclarifiesinapreliminarynotethat,althoughheunderstood bothlanguages wel,spanishand English, heprefered nottotransíatethenovelbecausetheauthordid notfindthecourageto undertakethisliteratyfeat.nevertheless,he wroteaboutthepleasurehe wouldfeelif 233

4 TORRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios lvanhoeweretranslatedintothespanishlanguage. He makesexplicitthathetranslatedsomeexcerpts: From myperspectíve,althoughiam ableto understand bothlanguages withalmost equalfacility,idonotfinditwithin metoundertakesuchanentetprise.althoughit wouldbe mostgratifyingtosesuchdelightful worksin Spanish,Iwouldbehesitant toendeavortotransíateeventhose whichsem easiest. White'sview onthe(im)posibility oftranslatingaliterary work orartwasclearly specifiedintheprevioussentences,alsoincludedinthisarticlequoted above: ApparentlythesenovéishavebeentranslatedinFrance-Godonlyknowshow!Forin myview manyoftheirbeautiescannotbetranslatedintoanylanguage,justasthereare flowerswhichcannotbepicked withoutthem losingtheirpetáis. 3. From prosein Englishtopoetry Blanco honed his English writing bycomposing prose:firsthe would draftsome sermons in around 1817;later he prepared Letersfrom Spain/Evidenceagainst CatholiásmIPreservativeagainstPoetryand quiteafew literary ariciesappearingin New Monthlj Maga^neas welasinthe QuarterlyReview.4 Blanco White'sprose wasinspired bythe style ofthe 18th-century, which,after al, was hisroots. Nevertheless,the translations we presentbelow revealthe new creative horizons whichthe Sevilian would explore.two yearsafter havingtranslated agood amountof poetry from Englishto Spanish,in 1825 Blanco White(1994:342)sentaleterto his friend5 Wiliam Bishop with an extensive poem from which weinclude here afew lines, which hesigned and dated on December16th ofthesameyear,from Chelsea(1-4, 11-18): Oh!Donotblameasrashthehand Whichnurturedinadistantland Itsnativelitecanthisforsake Andtrythe Britishlyreto wake. (.) OfBritain,I,afosterchild, Hernoblelyrehastoftbeguiled Thesorows which mustneedsatend The man who,hisillotto mend, Losesatonce,likeastrayeddove, Hisrichinheritanceoflove, And wanders,anew housetofind, Beggarofkindnesamong mankind. 4 Amongthese werethethrearicieswhichhe wouldpublishonshakespeare'spoetry. 5 Hesentthem 8aricies,tobeexact tohisfriend W.Bishopon November3Oth,1825(LJorens, 1972:299)althoughthedategivenby Garnicaand DíazisDecember,

5 Blanco Wbite'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry:A.Self-exikdWriterinEngland Hishappinesintheland welcoming him wastransmited and capturedthrough thesefirststepstaken writing poetryin English. He expresses hisgratitudetothe nationreceivinghim andthespiritualandemotionalstate whichspurshim to writein stanzas. He does notforgetinthisinitialpoetic declaration hisfirstcompositions penned ontheshoresofthe Betis,tecaling hisyouth and memories ofsevile(25-29): ForIcouldonceinconcertsweet ThebardsofancientBoetis meet, Andthoughnotbold,mySpanishrhyme Wasdeemedfulsoftwiththeirstochime. Ohsmilesofthe Castilian Muse! Blanco White's mostrememberedsonnet,widelypublishedinanthologiesandthe one which would bring him fame(iiorens,1972:300)is"nightand Death" writen onthe morning of December19,1825.Theoriginalideacan befoundin oneofhis notebooksunderthetilde"memorandforverse Nightand Death. Weshould know nothing ofthegrandeurandextentofthe Universebutforthenight.Analogy." This nascentidea wouldbethoroughly developedbythepoetandtranslatorseveraltimes. Coleridge,to whom Blancodedicatedthesonnet,wouldinhisresponse efusively praisethe quality of Blanco White's work,comparing and clasingit withthe very finestpoetic compositionsfrom thelikesof Milton and Wordsworth.Itshould be noted thatthe English Romantic'sresponsetothe Sevilian residingin England wouldbedelayedduetothetryingtimeshe wasgoingthrough: Thefinestand mostgrandlyconceived SonnetinourLanguage(atleast,itisonlyin Milton'sandin Wordsworth'sSonnetsthatIrecolectanyrival),andthisisnot my judgmentalone,butthatofthe manxaxe^ox^ev(yikonaxoojohn Hookham Free6. Blanco did notconsiderhavinghis English poemspublished.fate would haveit, however,that Coleridge would publish the sonnet,as he sent various pages of sonnetsto TheBijou,aChristmasalmanacalongthe Unesof Ackermann's succesful Forget-me-not. Among his own poems which he sentin 1828 he would mistakenly includethesonnetby Blanco White,whoprotested whenhefound out.butweought to notetheaccoladesthe Spanish writerwasgarneringasarisingliteraryand cultural figureofthetime.white wasthencomingtoenjoyliteraryprestigethrough hispoetic translations,ascanbegatheredfrom hisinterculturalactivity. 6 November28,1827,Life,I,439.Thusdocumented by Llorens(1971:303) whoaddedacomment from Leigh Hunt,includedinhiswel-knownanthologyofEnglishsonnetsentided TheBookoftheSonnet "Coleridgepronouncedthissonnet'thebestintheEnglishlanguage.Perhapsifhehadsaidthebestin Englishpoetry,thejudgment mighthaveappearedlesdisputable.initslanguagesomelitleimperfectionsarediscernible,whichdonotdetract,howeverfrom itssingular meritseveninthatrespect,especialyconsideringthattheauthor wasnotyoung when hecarneinto England,andthathethenspoke Englishlikeaforeigner.Inpointofthoughtthesonnetstandssupreme,perhapsabovealinanylanguage.Ñorcan weponderittodeeplyorwithtohopefulareverence." 235

6 TORRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios José María Blanco White would cary outvarioustranslationstwo years before penning "Night and Death." To these we can ad another poetic translation completed in 183 during hisstayin Dublin,along with yetanotherfrom 1840, signedfrom Liverpool,asweshalseshortly. 4. Translationsofpoetryinthe1920s The Germán publisher Ackermann'spublication, Variedades,appearedin 1823and served astheforum to divulgethetranslations which Blanco completed duringthis period.thefirstreléasecontainedtwotranslationsfrom Provencalandthre from English. Among histasksand undertakingsforthejournalcan befound an early, 129-linetranslation worthyofthehighestpraise. Thesourcetextwas"OntheretreatoftheFrenchfrom theheightsofsantarem, in Portugal," whosetitle wasabbreviatedinthetargettextto"sobrelaretiradadelos franceses de Santarem"(Ontheretreatofthe Frenchfrom Santarem).Thislocative omission('in Portugal') does notsuggestthat White(1994: )translatesin a fre manner. Letusreadthe opening ofthe poem bothinthe originalandinthe translation: Ontheproudheightswhichlooko'erTagus'flood, Indreadaray,thehostilearmiesstood; Withjealousvigilance,thro'dayandnight, Thishopesthebatle,thatpreparesforflight: The Gaelicchief,andhisdisheartenedhost, Feelthesurefailureoftheirdespot'sboast; Tho'famineurge,atackhedaresnottry, Hefearstofight,ñorfearshelestofly. Sobrelasaltascimasqueseespejan Deltajoenlacoriente,nocheydía Lasenemigashuestesseobservan Enangustiosoafán.Porlapelea Estaseagita,aquélaporlahuida. Burlada,eljefegaloysuslegiones Desudéspota miranlajactancia, Desanimadosya.Rabiosa,envano Elhambreapremia:éltemesushorores, Temelafugaytemelapelea. Thesourcetextwas writen by Richard B.Sheridan's7 15-yearoídson.The poem wasawardedaprizeatthe WinchesterSchoolanditsthemecelebratestheretreat 7 Anote ofgeneralinterest:hisfather's celebrated work, TheSchoolofScandal, wastranslated by Santander'sJoaquin TelesferodeTruebayCosío( ).Thetide washaescueladelbuenotonoorel seductor moralista.thefamily's wel-to-do situation as merchantsalowed him to studyin Franceand England. Uponreturningto Spain hehadto gointoexileoverseas.sheridan's work wasreceivedin Spain,latercitedinthe Revistaj RepertorioBimestredelaIsladeCuba(I,1831)(TheIslandofCuba'sBimonthly Review<ó"Maga^né)(I,1831)andhadevenbeenreviewedin ElIrisdeMéxicoon May31st,

7 Blanco White'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry:A Self-exikdWriterinEngland of Masena'sarmyinthe wakeofthreats whichsaidgeneralleveledagainstengland's troops.blanco(1994:260)explainsthat"becauseofthisrespect,altheenemiesof thefrenchoppresion wilrejoiceuponseeingthelinesioferthepublic." Nevertheles,thetranslatoranddirectorhimselfofthe VariedadesJournal,wherehepublished theverses,encouragedreaderstoexaminethesourcepoem,which wasincludedinits entdretyinthepublication.blanco would writethefolowing which wouldindirectly conveysomethoughts ontranslationtheory whileservingto capturethereader's interestand winhissympathy: (.)Ifalthosereading mynewspapercouldenjoythebeautyoftheoriginalenglish, whichishalprovideshortly,ishouldn'tdaréto presentatranslation which,in additiontothedefectsinherenttoaltranslations,andthose whichishalneverhave thetalenttoavoid,therearethose which oblige meto practicethiscraftdeprived of theleisure whichthese worksdemand.thetranslation wasdoneatamomentwhich should havebeenspentresting,andisonly meanttoconveyanideaoftheangleand mainthoughtsintheoriginal,forthose whocan'tunderstandthelanguagein whichit iswriten(.) Thethornyisueofdeathandexistence,whosedepthsheplumbsandspeaksto duringhisecclesiasticalperiod,isoneofhis work'srecurentthemes.elmensajerode Londres(orLasVariedades)presented-onJanuary 1,1823-hisversión ofthe welknown monologuefrom Hamlet,whose 3lines wereexpandedto43.the beautiful iambicpentameterisputintospanishinagroundbreaking work whichreads: Tobeornottobe thatisthequestion. Whether'tisnoblerinthe mindtosufer Theslingsandarowsofoutrageousfortune, Ortotakearmsagainstaseaoftroubles, Andbyopposingendthem?Todie-tosleep No more;andbyasleeptosay weend Theheart-ache,andthethousandnaturalshocks Thatfleshisheirto;'tisaconsummation Devoutlytobe wished.todie-tosleep, Tosleep!Perchancetodream.Ay,there'stherub; Forinthatsleepofdeath whatdreams maycome, When wehaveshufled ofthis mortalcoil, Mustgiveuspause.There'stherespect Thatmakescalamityofsolong Ufe. Seronoser.heaquílagrandeduda. Cuáles másnoble? Presentarelpecho Delaairadafortunaalassaetas, Otomararmascontraun mardeazares Y acabardeunavez? Morir.dormirse. Nada más.yescaparconsólounsueño A estedolordelalma,alchoqueeterno 237

8 TORRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios Queeslaherenciadelhombreenestavida. Hay másqueapetecer? Morir.dormirse. Dormir!Talvezsoñar.Ahíestáeldaño. Porque quiénsabeloshoriblessueños Quepuedenazorarenelsepulcro Alinfelicequeseabriócamino Deentreeltumultoyconfusióndelmundo? Blanco also approached the Englishman's playsthroughliterary criticism. He wrotethrearticles(garnica &Díaz 1994:273)onthetopicasawel-established writerentitled"thepictorialshakespeare,""noteson Hamlet"and"A Midsummer Night'sDream."8 Asforthetranslationsinto Spanish of worksshakespearecomposedcirca1601, Blanco's work occupiesaspecialplace. We mústrecognize Blanco Whiteasatrue literary greatforthereasons which weshalnow present.the paragraph which Blancotranslated wasthefirstknowntranslationinverse,asin 1772 Ramón dela Cruz prepared anindirectversión from J.F. Ducis's French translation, which departedto muchfrom the meaningstransmited bythe writerfrom Stratfordupon-Avon.In 1798 Leandro Fernándezde Moratíntranslatedthe wholethingina work distinguished byitseleganceandfaithfulnestothe original,but which was writen in dasic prose.thus, Blanco's translation presented above,though chronologicalythethird,wasrealythefirstoneinverse.laterdiere wouldfolow fourversionsappearing duringthe 19th Century.Carnerero(1825) wouldtransíate indirecdyfrom thefrench;avecila(1856)wouldbasehison Moratin's;Jaime Clark ( )translatedfrom the English;and Macpherson(1873)didthesame,but withafinalresultwhich wasafarcryfrom thesourcetext. Thethirdfragment which Blanco Whitetranslatedfrom Englishalsocarnefrom Shakespeare:the wordsofthomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, who upon being banishedby Richard I,reflected upon hissentence,aludingtohis'native English'. Thetranslatorand anthologertook advantage ofthiselement,adaptingitto his situationasone"self-exiled." Blanco madethethemefrom Richard Ihisown,using itto voice his own sentiments upon ariving in London (Duran 2005). The translation'sthemeisbasedonhisdesiretospeak English withtheeaseandprecisión he wouldliketo.theyoung Sevilian'seducationincludedthelanguageofhisIrish grandparents,whoseaccentwasfrowned uponingenteelenglishcircles. Weinclude afew Uneshere(Blanco White1994: ): Elidiomapatrioqueheaprendido Másdecuarentaaños,meesinútil Dehoyenadelante. Quéesmilengua Yapara mísinoharpadestemplada 8 Thethrearticlescarneoutinthe magazinethechristianteacher.thefirstini,1839(pp and );thesecondinthesameísue,onpp ;andthethirdinI(1840)onpp

9 Blanco Whik'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry:ASelf-exikdWriterinEngland 0instrumentosonoropuestoen manos Noacostumbradasapulsarsuscuerdas? ThelanguageIhavelearn'dtherefortyyears, MynativeEnglish,nowImustforgo; Andnow mytongue'suseisto meno more Thananunstringedvioloraharp, Orlikeacunninginstrumentcas'dup, Or,beingopen,putintohishands Thatknowsnotouchtotunetheharmony. Blancotranslatestheadjective'English'as'patrio'in orderto adaptand employ thethemetothelikingofthetranslator who-let'snotforget-selectstheexcerpts as an anthologer,like akind of etymologicalgardener choosing flowers from a garden. Blanco exploits Mowbray's question in orderto proclaim the Spaniard's voluntaryforgeting.thefinalexcerptshown oozes Blanco'stypicaldesireto own the Englishtongue: (.)Pasóeltiempo Deimitarbalbuciendoalanodriza Ysoyyaviejoparatomarayo. Sidelnativoaliento,deestasuerte Mepriváis,oh mirey,daismela muerte. 1am tooídtofawnuponanurse, Toofarinyearstobeapupilnow. Whatisthysentencethenbutspeechlesdeath, Whichrobs mytonguefrom breethingnativebreath? Thefouthtranslation whichheindudesinthefledglingjournal'sdebutalsocarne from Shakespeareandthetragedyof Hamletwhichthe Bard publishedin 1603.Here hecreated 96linesfrom the81-lineoriginal,goingbackto Act I,SceneIto capture theadulation,vanityandpoliticalafectation ofanaging manatcourt,polonius,who isdescribed as"an oíd,vainand nosycourtier."(blanco White 1994: ).The introduction whichthetranslatorcreated forhis Mesengersaysthat"Poloniusisa completeschemer,apalacegossip,always wilingtobadtalkhissuperiors,andnoles pompousandprofound withthoseservinghim." Shakespeare, who used Saxo Grammaticus' GestaDanorumashisbasis,portrays theimportance and gravity with which such miserablefools deal withthose most trivialandridiculousissues,asseeninthedialoguebetween Poloniusand Reynaldoin Denmark,regarding Polonius's absentson, whose whereabouts hetriesto discern whileremainingatthepalace. Youshaldo marvelouswisely,good Reynaldo. Beforeyouvisithim,to makeinquire Ofhisbehaviour. Enextremodiscreta,buen Reinaldo, Seráelhacerpesquisaantesdeverlo 239

10 TORRALBO CABALLERO, JuandeDios Y averiguarquéhace. When Polonius instructs Reynaldo to not dishonor his son during his investigationsin París,advising him toinvestígate his drinking,dueling,swearing, fights and even women, Reynaldo respondsthat"my Lord,that would dishonour him."poloniusthenjustifieshisrequestthus: You mustnotputanotherscandalonhim, Thatheisopentoincontinency; That'snotmy meaning:butbreathehisfaultssoquantly, Thatthey mayseem thetaintsofliberty; Sin másnimás. Oh! No!"Cum granusalis" Sehadedecir;perodeningún modo Pintarlodisoluto: nada menos! Thistranslation features some variations from the originaltext,such asthe express"cumgranusalis"-employedbythescholastics- whichreveáisthetranslator's specific education. Another of Blanco's atemptstotransmit Úiematerialin a way comprehensible for hisreaders comes when hetranslates Polonius'sreflection on lying('seyou now;/ Yourbaitoffalsehood,takethiscarp oftruth;/ Andthusdo we of wisdom and ofreach')thus:'(.) Ves ya claro/ cómo con este cebo de mentira/se pescalaverdad como unatrucha?'thetranslation expands uponthe originalthroughtheuseofatertiumcomparationis,evokingthe meaningsoughtwithan exampleandrenderingitmorelivelier,clearerand moreinteligible. When Reynaldo bidsfarewel:'pol.: God buy you;fare you wel./ Reyn.: Good mylord',thesocialhierarchyinvolvedappearsinthetranslationeven moreexplicitly, as Blanco hasthe characterssay: Adiós ybuen viaje./ Rein.: Besóosla mano',an elementwhich denotesthevasal-lordrelationship and which wasveryprominentin 18th-century Spanishliterature.9 5. Anew translation ofenglish versesin his maturity In 1840,two decadesafterthepublication ofthe English-to-Spanishtranslations justdiscussed, Blanco presented another poem from Shakespeare's plays.it was penned in Liverpool on February 7, Firmly setled in England, Blanco translated,into Spanishthistime,sevenlinesfrom TwelfthNight.Thefactthatnow,at age65,ourtranslatorchoseto deal withthiscomedyfulofloveafairs,indicatesa sentimental,gratefuland wel-adjusted spirit.they comefrom ActI,SceneIofthe work, which portraysthefemale psyche.blanco,in hiszealforclarification,entitled thetranslation "Mujer quecorazóntan finotiene".10 Dueitsbrevity, weincludeit hereinitsentirety: 9 Here we mustrecalthetheory oftranslation whichemerged atthecióseofthe 18th Centuryand wouldspanthecourseofthefolowingone. 10 Theselinescanbefoundinthe ManuscriptofPrinceton. 240

11 Blanco White'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry:A Self-exikdWriterinEngland O,shethathathaheartofthatfineframe Topaythisdebtoflovebuttoabrother, How wilshelove whentherichgoldenshaft Hathkil'dtheflockofalafectionselse ThatUveinher;whenliver,brain,andheart, Thesesovereignthrones,arealsuppü'd,andfil'd Hersweetperfections withoneselfking! Mujerquecorazóntanfinotiene, Queasípagaladeudadelcariño A un merohermano, conquéardortanpuro Noamará,alpuntoquelaflechadeoro Hayafindadoalinferiorrebaño Delosotrosafectos,cuandoeltrono Supremodesupecho,enqueresiden Susperfeccionescelestialestome Endominioabsolutoelreyvendado? ThefactthatBlanco Whitetranslated Shakespearean versesindiferentstagesof hislifereveáisto ushisvenerationforthe English writerand hisongoing dedication tohis works,andtothecraftoftranslatingingeneral.from the English musehealso translatedtheaforementioned composition by Richard B.Sheridan'sson. 6. Histimeasabidirectionaltranslatorofpoetry A seriesoftranslationsfrom Englishto Spanish haveled Blanco Whiteto be clasified asaunidirectdonaltranslator. However,adeeperexploration ofhis work beliesthisdescription,forcingustoreconsiderthisasesmentofhisproductionasa translator. White was,infact,abidirectionaltranslator,astheaboveheadingsuggests. Inadditiontotranslatingtheaforementioned Englishpoemsinto Spanish,other languagecombinationscanbeidentifiedin White'sbodyof work.firstly,the writer (1994:282)producedatranslationof Greek,whichcarnefrom Juliánthe Apostate's second epigram. This poem,"epigramaalórganodelemperadorjulianoelapóstata", ilustratesthe writer's multilingualcapacity and shedslighton his mastery ofthe Greeklanguage.Secondly, we can find asonnet writenin Spanish byjoaquín Lorenzo Vilanueva(Játiva1757-Dublín1837)which Blancotranslatedinto English. AccordingtoarchivesintheLiverpoolCulturalCentre(Ateneo),Blanco Whitehad Vilanueva'stwo-volume Vidaliteraria,publishedin Londoncirca1825,inhislibrary. White'snotesinthebook's marginsconfirm thathereadthe workveryclosely. In Blanco White produced an article,intheform ofareview,entitled "Spanish Poetry"for publication in Dublin's The University Reviewand Quarterly Magasgne. Thisreview carneoutthesameyearin whichjoaquín Lorenzo Vilanueva 11 Specificaly,published on pages ofthe aforementioned The UniversityReviei'andQuarterly Maga^ne, I. 241

12 TORRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios published his PoesíasescogidasintheIrish capital. Whiteindudedinitspagesthe Englishversión whichhehadpreparedofthesonnet: Dame,Señor,quepongayoentu mano Lospasosde mivida,yde mimuerte Elplazo,ymiledaotristesuerte, Sinindagartuimpenetrablearcano. Bástameamísaberquenofueenvano Darmeluzconquepuedaconocerte, Y ponermeensenderopordoacierte A subiratualcázarsoberano. Fueradeesto quiénsoyparalanzarme Detueternosaberenlaaltasima Yjuzgarqué medañaomeconviene? Quéhará miorgulosinodespeñarme? Queelqueasupropiavoluntadsearima Sobrecañacascadasesostiene. Thus,Blanco Whiteisintruthabidirecrionaltranslator,asevidencedinthispoem which wasalsotheonlycompletespanish-to-englishtranslationofapoem onrecord by Blanco: Lord,mayIfrelytothycaredivine Theorderingof myfortuneshereresign; Tothecommitthenumberingofmydays, Ñorseektoquestionthy mysteriousways. Enoughfor metoknow'twasnotinvain Thougav'stmelighttrueknowledgetoobtain, Andset'stme,outofthyexceedinglove Inthesurepaththatleadstoblisabove. Beyondthat,whatam Itotrytosound Ofknowledgeinfinitethedepthsprofound? Todarétojudge whatsuits meorwhatharms? Canhumanpridedoaughtthoughupinarms? Lethim whotrustshiswayward wiltakeheed; Heleans,alas,uponabrokenreed. Thissonnetdealswithreligiousthemesandappealstothe Almighty,atthesame timeitcontainsapleatobeshownthe waytodo Hiswil. 7. Sotnecontextualnoteson histranslations When attheage 5the Spanish writer wouldrememberhisexperiencesin his wel-known Autobiographyhe wouldrecalthespeechfrom Mowbray,the Duke of Norfolk.Itcomesfrom ActI,Scene IofRichardIatthe momentin whichthe Duke hasjustheardthesentence ofbanishment,andrespondstothe King.The speechexudesdisquiet,despondency,butalsolearning.therecentarivalin London seizeduponthesethemestoexpounduponhisparalelsituationof"linguisticpros- 242

13 Blanco White'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry:A Self-exiled WriterinEngland tration".though Whitecouldspeak English-withanIrishaccent-from childhood, helackedthefluidityhe wishedtohave,aswelastheaccentnecesarytoopératein London's mostselectsocialcircles.thetranslatorbemoansnotbeingabletousehis mothertongue,spahish: ('Elidioma patrio queheaprendido/ Másdecuarenta años, meesinútil/dehoy en adelante(.)',6-8).("my mothertongue whichi learned/for morethanfortyyears,isuseles/from thisdayon.") Hereferstohis nativelanguageasa'harpadestemplada'(8-11)("aharpoutoftune"): (.) Quéesmilengua Yapara mísinoharpadestemplada Oinstrumentosonoropuestoen manos Noacostumbradasapulsarsuscuerdas? Thesecommunicativeshortcomings,thisconstantvexaton athavingtoremain silent,spurhim tolearn English.He wouldexplaininhisa.utobiography(1988: )thatthisisthegreatmisfortuneofanexpatríate.hislackofanaturalmasteryof Englishleadshim todescribehimselfasa"poorinsectontheedgeofahole which anantilionis makinginthesand." Hefinishesthecitedpasagethus:"Sidelnativo aliento,deestasuerte/ Mepriváis,oh mirey,daismela muerte"(18-19). Jesús Diaz(Garnica &Díaz 1994:16)explainsinthe"Introduction"totheObra poéticacompleta(completepoeticworks)that Blanco wasthe prodigalson who never returned.josé María Blanco Crespo wasprolifícin Spainbefore headingoverseas, andjosé MaríaBlanco White wasprodigiousin Englandintermsofhisculturalproduction.Inhisclasesofeloquenceandpoetryandinhis Humanitieslesons,atSevile'sSociedaddeAmigosdelPáisn heheraldedatransition which could beseenapproachingduringthetwilightoftheend-of-the-century'srigidliterature(1994:427) andthe"emergenceofanewliteratureandanew society." He wasalreadyharboring alatentdesireto moveonfrom thepoeticconventionsofthe Neoclasicalage.Upon arivingin Londonhefounded Elespañol,amonthlyjournalwhichhehimself wrote (Goytisolo2010). Blanco wasawriterand,ofcourse,atranslatorinhisownright.letusadafew observationsregarding hiscareeraspreviously discused. When hearivedto Englandheatended Campbel'sliterarycircle,andthatheadedbythepublisher Muray, diningandresidingatholand House.But and hereistheunjustparadox while hisliterarystarwasrisingin England,in Spainhe wasgradualyforgoten,beingattacked attimesby moralizing authorities who considered his movementsinlifeas religiouslyimproper. MenéndezPelayo wouldrescue Blanco Whitefrom beingentirelyforgoteninhis Historia de osheterodoxosespañoles13 -though not withoutacertain pejorativetone. Gladstone,inhaEspañaModerna(1894)referedexplicidytotheSevilian's work,and 12 Acomplete"masterclas"canbereadin Garnica &Diaz,1994: ,in which-inakind of appendix-theyadthearicie whichauguredthe"new airof Romanticism,"and "announcedthe emergenceofthenewliteratureandanewsociety." 13 ForfulcoroborationofthisseVolumeVI,specificalythe1848edition,pp

14 TORRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios in 1920 Mario Méndez Bejarano publishedabookonhim.otherexperts whohave madeaneforttorecognize Blanco'sdistinguishedculturalwork-from thelate19th centuryalthe wayuntiltheearly21st-include Vicente Llorens,Antonio Garnica, Jesús Díazand Antonio Ríos,somein Academia,andsomefrom thetranquilityand leisureofthe monastery.theystandamongthose whohaveservedtosalvageblanco White'sliterarylegacy.Thepresentdocumentseekstoexplore White'srichcosmopolitaninfluencesandtheremarkableseriesofEnglishtranslationsheleft. Thefledglingtranslatorhadalreadysharpened hisskils whenhetranslatedfrom Frenchsomeonehundred Unesinhis"Églogaal Mesías",whoseoriginalversión,by AlexanderPope,wasentitled"Mesiah,ASacred Egloge".Assuch,itwasanindirect translation ofthe English poem. Blanco's approach clearlyilustratestheinterest sharedbysevile'sliterarylightsin Englishliterature.Thisexampleindicaresthatthe firstenglish poetry whichthefriends ofsevile'sacademiadeletrashumanaswas exposedto carnethrough Frenchtranslations. Nevertheles,there wasalso direct contactwith Englishpoetry,ascariedoutby Lista,atleast,whotranslatedthepoem which Blancosenthim ("Nightand Death"),publishingitin 1837.Blanco himself wouldcomeíntodirectcontactwith Englishverse whenhe movedto Englishsoil. The Sevilian'sthree-decade stayin England would yield,among many other interculturalcreations,anabundanceoftranslations.therangeoftranslations which Blanco Whitecompletedfrom Englishto SpanishshowshisinterculturalÍmpetusas wellashispredilectionforthegeniusofshakespeare.blanco waspositivelybowled overbythe Elizabethan'skeen understandingandinsightinto human nature.the translator,inthe heading ofhistranslation of RichardI,U afirms hisinclination towardsthe Shakespearean world,praisingthe English poet's merits,beautiesand uniquenes.inaddition,heexplainsthegapsinherenttoanytranslation,anddiscusseshow languagedefinesa man'slimits,anticipatingthetheory oflanguageto be presented by such linguists and philosophers as Witgenstein (1969:64)-'Die Grenzen meinersprachebedeutendie Grenzen meiner Welt'-: The meritofthegreatenglishpoetwhoseñamegracesthisaricieissouniqueandthe beautyofhis work,toputitone way,issocloselylinkedtothelanguagein whichitis writen,thatitisimposibletosucesfulyshareitwiththose whodon'tunderstand English perfectly.languagescan becaled dead notonly whenthereisnolongera people whospeakthem.those whoprocesthem visualy,andthroughtheinanimate mediationofthepage,arelikethose whoonlyknow apersonfrom hisportrait.onlya longstayinacountry whoselanguage weaim tolearncanprovideus withthekeyto understandingitspeople'sspirit.ahundredthousand memories mustarise when we hearcertain wordsif we meantocompletelypenétratethe meaning ofawriter,ofa traepoetwhoknew howtousethem. Thefirstexerciseinpoetrytranslation which wehavepresentedinthischapter, nevertheles,doesnotcomefrom Shakespeare,butratherfrom avery precocious youngpoet.hisfirstpoem translatedfrom English waspublishedin1811,soonafter 14 Foundinthecitedvolumeof Variedades( ),pp

15 Blanco White'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry:ASelf-exikdWriterinEngland hisarivalin England,andfeaturedoverahundredlinescomposedoriginalybya15- yearoíd."sobrelaretiradadelosfrancesesdesanterem"wouldnotbeknowntoday ifitsoriginalauthorhadn'tbeen Richard B.Sheridan'sson. Withrespecttotheparagraphstranslatedfrom the worksofthegreatelizabethan poet,twofragmentsarefrom Hamlet,onefrom RichardI,andanotherfrom Twelfih Night. Noteworthyisthetimeelapsedfrom histranslation ofthefirstthre parts (1823,in London)untilhe presented hislasttranslationin 1840,one yearbefore pasingaway. He had been aprofesed Anglicanfortwelveyearsand had decidedto fuly embrace England.Tothisendheundertookaprogram oflearningandre-educatdon inorderto becomefuly English.He wasapplaudedforhisprose,and wouldthen seeksuccesin poetry,which would come withthepoemsheintroducedintothe homes ofhisfriends,such asthe sonnet"nightand Death," which he would dedícateto Coleridge,sendingitbothto him,in six months afterits composition-andto Alberto Lista,whoseversión waspublishedin 1837and was thefirsttranslationinto Spanish,accordingtotheresearch wehaveperformed and theinformation which wehavebeenabletoanalyze. Wereferheretotheotherroad whichhetookinhisbidirectionaltranslations.let ustakethecaseoflorenzo Vilanueva'ssonnetwhichbegins withtheline"dame, Señor,quepongayoentu mano."thepoem translated by Whitefrom Spanishto Englishevidenceshisliteraryprowes,asheembelisheditbothintermsofsound and meteras welasinstyle."lord, MayIFreely"isaproductof Blanco White's bilingualeducation and vividly displays his dual mastery of Spanish and English leters. If we weretoundertakeaphilologicalanalysis,likeconclusionscouldbedrawn. Letus makeafew.his"soliloquiodehamlefisfaithfultotheoriginal,bothin meter andsemanticaly,despiteafew necesary modifications madeby White,suchashis expansiónofthepasageby10lines,orhisextensiveseriesof modulations which we havepointed out. Mostremarkable,however,ishow the Spanish poetapplied an initialrule of meterand maintained semanticequivalence,thusconveyingtothe Spanishreaderalthe metaphysicalandreflectivepotencylatentinthesourcetext. Thephrasesandsentencesthatcontainsome modulationsandshiftsinrelationto the originaltexthelp ustoinferthat Whiteappliessome Romanticideasin his approachtotheisue oftranslation. Onthe one hand,hisefortand his way of translatingdenoteindividualism andfreedom and,ontheother,inthesametonethat Coleridge,hedoesnotbelieveintheposibilityoftranslation,oratleast,he makes explicitthatitisextremely dificultto maintain,inthere-writentext,theelements thatareinherentintheprimarytext Aswehavequotedatthebeginning,thereisahandwriten markinhis"an Eclogueforthe Mesiah" whereheclarinesthathedoesnotknow whethertocalitranslationorimitationtothisnew poem done byhimself,becausetheñameoftranslationdenoteslesinventionandefort,andtheterm imitationis tovagueanddoesnotdenotethelinkandconnectionthathealwayshasobserved withtheoriginal. 245

16 TOKRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios Tocapofouranalysisofthetextfrom Hamletwehavecitedthefragmentby Moratín,in whichaslowingefectinprosestandsout,and whoseanalysisservesto spotlighttheabletranslationofdificult,opaqueexcerptsin Blanco'spoeticversión. These existentialconcerns from Shakespeare, which would betaken upin Romanticliterature, would delight Blanco White,asthey fitperfecdy with his worldview and hisown burning metaphysicalconcerns. Blanco wasatracted by Shakespeare's"epistemologicalfury"(Jiménez Hefernan 1996:30).He presented universalisuesand showed,inthe words of Borges,how "words aresymbols which positashared memory"(borges 1977:37),so centralto Shakespeare's dramaticuniverse,aswelascrucialtothetranslatorandtheanthologer. The English-Spanishtranslator'stimein England wouldspanfrom 1810until 1841,withthedecadeofthe1820'sstandingoutashis mostprolific,particularly duringthefirsthalf.thus,blanco White's mostfruitful,creative period carne during his daysin England, during which he would found El españoland colaborateonperiodicalpublicationssuchasthe Variedades. Anotherfacetof Blanco White worthy ofatentionishisdedicationto prose translation.thiscanbeseeninhistranslationsofpedrode Cebalos,inhisSpanish versión ofthebookofcommonprayer,inhisprosetranslationsof Wiliam Paley,and A.C.Clairaut'sFrench volumeongeometry,oreveninhisenglishversionsoftwo ofhisowntales("el AlcázardeSevila"and"Lasintrigasvenecianas")This work standsinadditiontootheroriginalworks,suchashistranslationsofpasagesfrom La HistoriadelGranTamorlán,fragments he did from the CrónicadeDonAlvarode Luna,andevenhistranslationofaworkin Germánoncognition:TheoryojCognition. These worksoferusanimpresivedisplayof White'scosmopolitanandintercultural capacities. Theaforementioned worksestablish Blanco White'sasaprolifictranslatorof English. Moreover, he can even be clasified as not only bilingual but multilingual,ashetranslated Germán and Frenchin additionto English,notto mention hisinverse workfrom Englishto Spanish.Inlightofthisitisclearthat Whiteposesedatleastatrilingualmind.AccordingtohisLife,hededicatedtime each daytoreviewingand perfecting hiscommand ofclasicallanguages,inthis waybecomingabletoreadthe worksof Homerintheoriginal,andtotransíate anepigram from Juliánthe Apostateinto English. 8. Aromanticeducatedinthe"Sevilian Enlightenment" José María Blanco Crespo,firsteducated within the milieu ofthe Spanish Enlightenment,lived agood partofhislifeimmersedin andinfluenced bythe Romantic movementin England. He would acquirehisearliestculturalnotionsin Andalusia, with Neoclasicism in fulvogue. Hisfamily carne down from Irish ancestors.infact,hissurname"blanco" wastranslatedto Spanishfrom theoriginal English"White".Athomehis Catholicparentstaughthim toreadusingstoriesfrom the Oíd Testament,thelivesofthesaintsandthe miraclesof Mary.His mothersaw 246

17 Blanco White'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry:A Self-exiledWriterinEngland toitthathelearned Latínand English,thelaterbeingasecond nativelanguageat home. Whitestudied ata Dominican school where hisdesireto becomeapriestot clergymen was welreceived.helearneditalianinordertocompare Luzán's Poética with Muratori's Delaperfectapoesía. He wasabletolearnfrenchthrough Telémaco.His childhoodfriend Manuel Maríade Mármolencouragedhim tostudy Castilianpoetry, andhe wasexposedto Englishman FrancisBacon'sNovumOrganum.He wouldform afriendship with Arjona,theferventdefender ofclasicaltaste. Blanco White's literary sensibilities were shaped within the end-of-the-century Neoclasical environment. Nevertheles,Blanco Whitestandsasatransitionalfigureinthehistory ofour Literature(Garnica &Diaz1994:21),theharbingerofawayofthoughtbridgingthe Anden Regime,withitspoliticalandliteraryprecepts,andanew societyoffreedoms andprogres.histranslationsreflectthissamedichotomy. Blanco Whitelived duringthe era during which English Romanticism was nascent, which servesto explainthe nature ofthe Spanish versions ofhistales publishedin Forgetmenotandinthe Variedades,aswelasthetranslationsindudedin thepagesof theformerpublication.these worksfeatured elementsofnostalgia, magic,the evasión ofreality,confesion,"autobiographicalintrospection," "the celebration ofthe Self',and"identity mystification"(dietz 1997:10).Also present wasaworld oflegend approachedthroughtheimagination and memory(zavala 1982).16 Upon arivingin Britain he wouldthoroughly embrace his new land's culture.hefeatured yetanother Romanticaspectwithinhisown nature,ashe was haunted byaperpetualsenseofdisatisfactdon,thecrisisof modern manduringthe transitionfrom the18th Centurythroughthedawnofthe19th.Thiscrisisprompted him tocontémplateexistential,metaphysicalandtheologicalquestions,ashecarneto incarnateexactlythefolowing"warning"from Wordsworth and Coleridge(1994: 106)atthebeginningoftheirLyricalBaladr. ItisthehonourablecharacteristicofPoetrythatits materialsareto befoundin every subject which caninterestthehuman mind.theevidenceofthisfactisto besought, notinthe writingsof Critics,butinthose ofpoetsthemselves.(.) Theyshould ask themselvesifitcontainsanaturaldelineation ofhuman passions,human characters, andhumanincidents;andiftheanswerbefavourabletotheauthor's wishes,thatthey shouldconsenttobepleasedinspiteofthat mostdreadfulenemytoourpleasures,our ownpre-establishedcodesofdecisión. 16 Anotherindicationof White'sRomanticism -along withthatoftherestoftheemigres-isthehistoricalnovelwhich Telesforo detrueba wouldpublishin1829,thecastilian,spuredbyhisprevioussuccesswith Góme^Arias(whichhepublishedin1828,inspiredbyLaNiñaby Gómez Ariasde Calderón). TheCastilianrecreatesamedievalseting withcontentfrom thepopularimaginationandpoetrybasedon thereignofpedroiofcastile,drawingonthechroniclesofchancelorpedro Lópezde Ayala.In1831 hepublished TheIncógnitoin London,asocialportrait,folowed byakindofdialogueentitled Parísand hondón.itisevidenthow Trueba wasinfluenced by WalterScot.If weconsiderthe DukeofRivas'El moro expósitoanditsimpactwegainasharperview ofthekind of Romanticescapism cultivatedbythe emigres. 247

18 TOKRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios Blanco White-asaRomanticpoet,asaman ofhistimeandasahuman being - embodiestheinstability,disquietand dissidencestired up bythe French Revolution, featufes which would cometo define hiseforts ontheliterarysceneand his own, personalspiritualanguish. In he putforward adoctrinaire defense ofimagination,referingtothe tales ofjuan Manuel and their Oriental model. Blanco White,as a wel-versed Romantic,arguedinfavorofpoetictruth,and asympathy with medievalism18,traits uterlyintune withthe Romanticagenda.Blancoexplaineditthis way: Thesupernatural machineryemployedintheprecedingtale,orthesuppositionthatby some meansunknownthe human mind may besubjectedto acomplete delusion, during whichitexistsinaworld ofherowncreation,perfectlyindependentoftime andspace,hasastronghold on what mightbecaled man'snaturalprejudices.far from therebeinganythingrevolting orpalpablyabsurdinsuch anadmision,the obscurityitselfofthenatureoftimeandspace,andthephenomenaofthedreaming anddelirious mind,arereadytogiveitacolouringoftruth.thesucces,indeed,ofthe tales which havebeencomposed uponthebasis,proveshow readily men ofalages andnationshaveacknowledged,whatwe mightcali,itspoeticaltruth. Blanco'sliterary positionscelébrate Romanticism andturntotheimagination of one likejuan Manuel, die medievalism of El Cid,and the simplicity ofjorge Manrique.In Variedades19he would writethefolowing: In mostofthe Castilian poets,from Garcilaso downto ourtime,oneobservesthat theyrarelysay whatthey wantto,butratherwhattheycan.rhyme,italian meter(with theirsetingandlackofflexibilityinourlanguage)andacertainfalsenotionofpoetic language which doesnotalowthem tosayanythingbutwhatotherpoetshavesaid, have deprivedthem ofthefreedom ofthoughtand expresion.the worksofthe SpanishpoetsoftheItalianschoolareaseriesofimitationsandrepetitions,beautiful andpleasantattimes,buttiringasawhole,withoutauthenticityoracorespondence between whatthepoetsaysand whathefeels.in Manrique'spoem onefelsthe absence ofsome adornment,especialytowardsthe end,but,though neithervery pasionateñorloving,thereisnottheslightestsignofafectationinit. Wefindinitan exactportraitoftheauthorwhenhe wroteit,thatis,abraveyoung manconvincedof thetruth ofthosereligiousbeüefs which hisfather'sdeathservedto bolsterin him; melanchoücbutnotdespondent;in mourning,butwithdecorum. 17 AcommentpublishedinIsueXI,1814,p.103.Iiorens(1979b: )relatessaidarticletoSchlegel'sthoughtsregarding Macbeth:"WhetherinShakespeare'stimepeoplebelievedinghostsand witches ornot,istotalyirelevantwhenjustifyingthepoet'semploymentofprexistingtraditionsin Hamktand MacBeth. (.) Onthis(humannature)thepoetbasedhimself,appealingtothefearoftheunknown,the senseofnature'sdarkside,andthe worldofthespirit,whichtheenlightenmentthoughtithadtotaly overeóme."(acourseofkcturesondraniaticartandüterature,london,1845:407). 18 Hedefended,forinstance,theSongoftheCidasanearlyilustrationofnationalgenius.(Llorens,1970b: 401)andastrongbulwarkagainstthedecadenceofthe Modern Age. 19CopyI,1824,p

19 Blanco White'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry: ASelf-exiledWriterinEngland Thisdeclaration ofhisown principiesechoes Wordsworth and Coleridge(1994: 108)andtheir Romanticafirmations.Letusconsiderthe wordsof Blanco Whitein lightofthisparagraphfrom the Englishpoets: Anaccuratetasteinpoetry(.)can onlybeproduced byseverethoughtandalong continuedintercourse withthebest modelsofcomposition.(.) Thetaleof Goody Blake and Hary Gilíisfounded on a wel-authenticated fact whathappenedin Warwickshire.Oftheotherpoemsinthecolection,itmaybepropertosaythatthey areeitherabsoluteinventions oftheauthors,orfacts whichtook place within his personalobservationorthatofhisfriend. Blanco White'sliteraryideas,bothin his poetic work as welasin hisliterary criticism,revealafruitfulevolution withitsrootsfoundintheclasicalsensibilitiesof the Sevilianschoolofhisage. Duringthefirstthird ofthe 19th Century he would advanceaestheticalyfrom afew outmoded positions-attimes wordyandafected - towardstheemerging Romantic movement. With hisarticlesofliterary criücism as evidence,wecanargüethatblanco wastrulyapioneerof modernliterarycriticism in Spain. Blanco White absorbed the ingredients of English Romanticism and would ilustratethose new aestheticideas.some ofthe halmarks which would define his literature would beitsnaturalness,spontaneousflow,thesincerity ofitsconfessions, itsorganicdevelopment,diepast,therealm oflegend,theneedforevasión,defiance ofthe world,disconformity,spiritualanguish,disenchantment,disquiet, medievalism andimagination.theseelementsthustietogether,perfectly capturing his work and hischaracter. Hisaestheticnotdonsandthinkingcontained metaphysicaland politicaldoubts,so hechangedboth hisreligiónandcountry.hisdiscontentandtheinnerdisquietofhis dynamicspiritspured him to alterinherentaspects ofhis Ufeand character. His actions werealsoborn ofhumanandethicalconflicts with Catholiccelibacy.Hethus forged anew selfandidentity, which would begin with his double ñame: Blanco White,thelaterrecoveringhistraditionalIrishsurname. Blanco wasinspired by adecided anglophilia,and from ayoung age exhibited dear signs of hislove for English things,as when he emulated Pope's eclogue, published Englishpoemsinthe CoreodeSevila,orwenttothe matinorderto defend Reinoso'sÍMinocenciaperdida,when Quintana hadleveledtheseverestcriácismsatit in aruthles artide publishedin VariedadesdeCiencias,Literaturay Artes despiteit being an admirableimitation of Milton's work.these earlyflirtations with English literature wouldlatercometofruitionin Blanco'spen. When helivedin England his dualnature would reach its peak. Romanticism enthused him,justasitdid the Schlegelbrothers. Blanco's writing wasalso marked andinspired bythe verses of Shakespeare,inthesame waythatthe Germans weretaken with Romanticism inful swing. 249

20 TORRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios 9. Conclusión Blanco Whiterepresentstheepitomeofculturalfusión between Spanishand Englishleters,and his workpresentsavivid portraitof Anglo-Spanishinterculturalism. Theconsonancebetweenhislifeand workrepresentsaharmoniousunity whichperfectlyilustratesthenatureofhisera. Blanco White'slifespannedfrom Sevileto Cádizto Madrid,andanotherstage lasting overthre decadesin England. Blanco's career,thus,featurestwo weldefined,stages.thefirstperiod wasoneofaspanishlifelivedin Sevile,markedby histheologicalstudiesandhisserviceasapriest,andbyhisinvolvementintheculturalandliteraryeventsoftheday.thesecondphaseencompaseshisothercultural, religiousandliterarylife,thisonein GreatBritain,defined byavoluntaryexile-a decisión born ofhissensethathe wasnotfreintelectualy orasapersonin his country,despitetheafection heharboredforthecityofhisbirth. Duringthisself-exilehe woulddedícateagoodpartofhistimetodiferentinterculturalandculturaltasks,specificalythetranslation ofenglishpoetry.amongthe texts whichtheauthorelectedtotransíate,numerousfragmentsofshakespearestand out,withtheplotsofthese worksattimeseven miroring Blanco'sownlife. José María Blanco White'sanglophiliaencompased both writingdirecdyin English,as welashiscontributionsto Englishculturethrough diferentjournalsofthe era. Withrespecttohistranslation work,thefragmentshetranslatedfrom Englishto Spanishandviceversa werebothtrulyremarkable. References Juande DiosToralbo Cabalero ALONSO,C.(ed.),Historiadelaliteraturaespañola,vol.5.Hadaunaliteraturanacional Madrid.Crítica2010. BLANCO WHITE,J.M.,TheUfeoftheRp.J. BlancoWhite(2tomos),presentada allector españolpor A.Garnicacomo AutobiografíadeBlanco White.,Obrapoéticacompleta. Madrid:Visor1994., ObrainglesadeBlancoWhite(traducción yprólogo dejuan Goytisolo). Madrid: Alfaguara 1998.,SeminarioPatriótico.Sevila,1809.A.Garnica &R.Rico(eds.),Granada:Almed2005. BORGES,J.L.,Ellibrodearena. Madrid:Alianza1977. CARBONEL ICORTÉS,O.,Traducciónj cultura. Delaideologíaaltexto.Salamanca: Ediciones Colegiode España CHEW,S. C, & R. D. ALTICK, "TheNineteenthCenturyandAfter( )",en A. C. BAUGH (ed.),a LiteraryHistoryofEngland.London:Routledge &Kegan Paul,1967, CÓMITRE NARVÁEZ,I.y MARTÍN CINTO, M.(eds.),Traducciónj Cultura.El Retodela Transferencia Cultural. Málaga:Librosencasa2002. DÍAZ PLAJA,G.,Introducciónalestudiodelromanticismoespañol. Madrid:Espasa