Blanco White's Anglophilia,Translationsand Poetry: A Self-exüed Writerin England

Størrelse: px
Begynne med side:

Download "Blanco White's Anglophilia,Translationsand Poetry: A Self-exüed Writerin England"

Transkript

1 Blanco White's Anglophilia,Translationsand Poetry: A Self-exüed Writerin England Juande DiosTORRALBO CABALLERO Universidadde Córdoba ABSTRACT ThispaperstudiesJosé María Blanco WhiteasatranslatorofEnglishpoetryandasapioneeringfigure intheculturalfusión betweenspanishand Englishleters.From hisbeginningsinsevilüan Enlightment hedecidedtoexilein England wherehededicatedpartofhistimetodiferentinterculturalandcultural tasks,specificalytotranslation.blanco White'sanglophiliaencompasesboth writingdirectlyin English as welashiscontributionsto Englishculturethrough diferentjournalsoftheera.thereisaglaring consonancebetweenhislifeand workthatrepresentsaharmoniousunity whichperfectlyilustratesthe natureofhisera. Keywords: Translation Studies,Literary Translation,Interculturalism, Romanticism, Blanco White, Shakespeare RESUMEN Estetrabajo estudiaajosé María Blanco Whitecomotraductordepoesíainglesaycomo unafigura pioneraenlafusiónculturalentrelasletrasinglesasyespañolas.desdesusiniciosenlailustraciónsevilana,decidióexiliarseeninglatera donde dedicó partedesutiempo adiferentestareasculturalese interculturales,concretamente alatraducción.laanglofilia de Blanco Whiteaunatantolaescritura directamenteeningléscomosuscontribucionesalaculturainglesaatravésdediferentesperiódicosdela época.hayunanotablecomuniónentresuvidaysuobralacualrepresentaunaunidadarmoniosaque ilustraperfectamentelanaturalezadesutiempo. Palabrasclave:Estudiosdetraducción,Traducciónliteraria,Interculturalidad,Romanticismo,Blanco White,Shakespeare. 1. Intoduction José María Blanco's multicultural nature wilbe discused herethrough an examination ofhis work on English poetsfrom diferent eras, mainlyfrom the Elizabethantothe Augustanperiod.Hisknowledgeofthe Englishlanguageandhis familiarity withthe British clasicsencouraged hisacademiccoleaguesto explore Englishliterature. Blanco wasresponsible,forinstance,for Lista'sand Reinoso's imitation of Miltonian versein apoetry competition whichtheythemselves had organized.1 It wasthanksto Blancothatlistatranslated andemployed Alexander Pope's TheDunríadasthe basisforhisimperiodelaestupidez(1798).inthe next 1 Thereader mayfindinformation aboutthiscontest,along withotherliteraryandculturalfacts,inan article which wehavepublished\x\alfinge20,2008,

2 TORRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios section weshalsehow BlancoalsobroughtPope'spoetic worktolifein Spanish, albeitinanindirectway. As weshalsee,afterhavingspent morethanadecadeon Englishsoil,Blanco continuedto honehispoeticskils.circa 1823hehad dedicated himselftoliterary translation.itwasduringthistimethathedidhisfirstdabblingsatwritingpoetryin English. 2. Somenotesofhisbeginningsasatranslator Blanco prepared atranslation of Germán poetry,though doing soindirectly, translatingfrom the French.The poem was Gesner's"Canción dela alborada" ("Songofthe Dawn").This wasoneofhisfirstatemptsatthekindoftranslationat whichhe wouldexcelduringhistimein England.Beforeembarkingonhisjoutmeyto Londonhe would workonan Englisheclogue,butinthesame waythatherecreated Gesner'sverse:throughindirecttranslation,asweshalseshortly. Thus,from amongthe worksofhisyouthafreversetranslation ofaneclogue standsout.this wasthefirsttranslation heperformedfrom English,andityielded some110lines.thesevilian'sentidedhis work"églogaal Mesías"theoriginaltext being AlexanderPope's"An Eclogueforthe Mesiah."Pope,inturn,hadbasedhis workon Virgil.Blanco wasonlyaware,ashelamentedinhisnotes,2 ofatranslation infrenchprose.blanco3(1994:133)wrotethefolowinginthe manuscript: Theeclogue whichipresenttothe Academyistakenfrom one writenbythe English poet Pope, whoimitated Virgil's Polio, whointurn had borowed from various thoughtsfoundinthe Prophecy ofisaiah, which headorned and extendedto his liking.idon'tknow whethertocalithispieceof mineatranslation oranimitation, becausetheterm translationsuggestslesinventionandoriginalworkthanishouldlike, whiletheterm imitationisto vague and doesnotconvey acertainloyaltytothe originalwhichihave maintainedthroughout.ishouldn'tliketoappropriateanything whichisthe work ofanother,butneithershouldiliketo bedeprived ofanything belongingto me,especialyinthisgenreofworksin whichselfesteem issoesential- Iknow notwhy,but morethaninothers.itistruethatin myecloguetherearefew thoughts whicharenotatleastsuggestedinpope's work,butihavethroughoutgiven givethesethoughtsatwist,exhibitingacertainkindoforiginality. Inthispreliminaryreferencethetranslator makesanoteofhisefortsandsubtly presentssomeideasonthetheoryoftranslation,ashedoesn'tknow whetherto opt fortheconceptof"translation"ortheterm "imitation." Later,when hecompares someexcerptsheañudestopaintingtoexplainhistaskintheseterms:"he whois versedinthecraftofpoeticimages wilseinalmostthesame wordsavibrantand grand paintingratherthan one with no movement,and oflessplendor." Blanco 2 Thereisamanuscriptcopyoftheecloguecreated byjosé María BlancoattheIibraryofthe Hispanic Society of Americain New York.Theoriginal manuscriptiskeptatsevile's UniversityIibrary and features,asgarnicaexplains,verycarefulandcalculated writing. 3 Wehavetranslatedthesequotationsadhocforthispaper. 232

3 Blanco Wbite'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry:A Self-exiledWriterinEngland justifiestheselectivenesofhispoem,statdngthat"ishould notethateverythingin the English versión doesnotappearin myecloguebecause,asineverrealysetout totransíateit,iwasfretoomitwhatifoundleastrelevant." Pope created his workin 1712 and entitledit"messiah. ASacred Eclogue in Imitation of Virgil's Polio." Alexanderinsertedtextsfrom the Latin poet's eclogue IV,sprinklinginlinesfrom theprophetisaiah,andthe worktotals 108linesin al. Blancoinhisversiónomitsthirtyandtranslates72.ThisconfirmsforusthatSevilian cítelesfirstcarneinto contact with Englishliteraturethrough French translations. Blanco'spoem (1994: )isentitled'"Églogaal Mesías." Wepresentheresome passages,bothfrom thespanishas welasfrom theoriginalenglish work: Cantad,ohvos,delasagradaElía Vírgenesventurosas,dulceshimnos, Entantoquelasselvasylosprados Escuchande mivozenardecida Losecos,quejamásenpradooselva Talaltosfueron depastorcantados. Ye NymphsofSolyma!beginthesong: Toheav'nlythemessublimetstrainsbelong. The mosyfountains,andthesylvanshades, ThedreamsofPindusandth'Aonian maids, Delightno more Othou myvoiceinspire Whotouch'dIsaiahhalow'dlipswithfire! Thetranslator's poeticinspiration, which reflectsthe bucolic, Arcadiantrendin vogue duringthe period,can be perceivedfrom thestart. We ad herethrelines which Blancoinsertedinhand-writen notes: Cielos,hacedbajarvuestrorocío, Quela Naturalezaposternada Laaguardayaensilenciorespetuoso 'Ye Heavens!From highthedewynéctarpour, Andinsoftsilenceshedthekindlyshow'r! Blanco White'sversiónfeaturesthrelines whiletheoriginalenglishhadtwo, thoughheemployedthesamehendecasylabic meter. Withsomeelementschanged,it wouldseem thatthe English wasnotthedirectsourceofthetranslation,andthatthe Seviliancreated hisversiónusinganintermediatingtextin French. Inajournalpublishedin London, Variedades(I,31-38),wefindapaperby White entitled "RetazosdelanovelaintituladaIvanhoe".The explanation heincluded denotesthatblancocould havetranslated WalterScot'sbook,butheclarifiesinapreliminarynotethat,althoughheunderstood bothlanguages wel,spanishand English, heprefered nottotransíatethenovelbecausetheauthordid notfindthecourageto undertakethisliteratyfeat.nevertheless,he wroteaboutthepleasurehe wouldfeelif 233

4 TORRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios lvanhoeweretranslatedintothespanishlanguage. He makesexplicitthathetranslatedsomeexcerpts: From myperspectíve,althoughiam ableto understand bothlanguages withalmost equalfacility,idonotfinditwithin metoundertakesuchanentetprise.althoughit wouldbe mostgratifyingtosesuchdelightful worksin Spanish,Iwouldbehesitant toendeavortotransíateeventhose whichsem easiest. White'sview onthe(im)posibility oftranslatingaliterary work orartwasclearly specifiedintheprevioussentences,alsoincludedinthisarticlequoted above: ApparentlythesenovéishavebeentranslatedinFrance-Godonlyknowshow!Forin myview manyoftheirbeautiescannotbetranslatedintoanylanguage,justasthereare flowerswhichcannotbepicked withoutthem losingtheirpetáis. 3. From prosein Englishtopoetry Blanco honed his English writing bycomposing prose:firsthe would draftsome sermons in around 1817;later he prepared Letersfrom Spain/Evidenceagainst CatholiásmIPreservativeagainstPoetryand quiteafew literary ariciesappearingin New Monthlj Maga^neas welasinthe QuarterlyReview.4 Blanco White'sprose wasinspired bythe style ofthe 18th-century, which,after al, was hisroots. Nevertheless,the translations we presentbelow revealthe new creative horizons whichthe Sevilian would explore.two yearsafter havingtranslated agood amountof poetry from Englishto Spanish,in 1825 Blanco White(1994:342)sentaleterto his friend5 Wiliam Bishop with an extensive poem from which weinclude here afew lines, which hesigned and dated on December16th ofthesameyear,from Chelsea(1-4, 11-18): Oh!Donotblameasrashthehand Whichnurturedinadistantland Itsnativelitecanthisforsake Andtrythe Britishlyreto wake. (.) OfBritain,I,afosterchild, Hernoblelyrehastoftbeguiled Thesorows which mustneedsatend The man who,hisillotto mend, Losesatonce,likeastrayeddove, Hisrichinheritanceoflove, And wanders,anew housetofind, Beggarofkindnesamong mankind. 4 Amongthese werethethrearicieswhichhe wouldpublishonshakespeare'spoetry. 5 Hesentthem 8aricies,tobeexact tohisfriend W.Bishopon November3Oth,1825(LJorens, 1972:299)althoughthedategivenby Garnicaand DíazisDecember,

5 Blanco Wbite'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry:A.Self-exikdWriterinEngland Hishappinesintheland welcoming him wastransmited and capturedthrough thesefirststepstaken writing poetryin English. He expresses hisgratitudetothe nationreceivinghim andthespiritualandemotionalstate whichspurshim to writein stanzas. He does notforgetinthisinitialpoetic declaration hisfirstcompositions penned ontheshoresofthe Betis,tecaling hisyouth and memories ofsevile(25-29): ForIcouldonceinconcertsweet ThebardsofancientBoetis meet, Andthoughnotbold,mySpanishrhyme Wasdeemedfulsoftwiththeirstochime. Ohsmilesofthe Castilian Muse! Blanco White's mostrememberedsonnet,widelypublishedinanthologiesandthe one which would bring him fame(iiorens,1972:300)is"nightand Death" writen onthe morning of December19,1825.Theoriginalideacan befoundin oneofhis notebooksunderthetilde"memorandforverse Nightand Death. Weshould know nothing ofthegrandeurandextentofthe Universebutforthenight.Analogy." This nascentidea wouldbethoroughly developedbythepoetandtranslatorseveraltimes. Coleridge,to whom Blancodedicatedthesonnet,wouldinhisresponse efusively praisethe quality of Blanco White's work,comparing and clasingit withthe very finestpoetic compositionsfrom thelikesof Milton and Wordsworth.Itshould be noted thatthe English Romantic'sresponsetothe Sevilian residingin England wouldbedelayedduetothetryingtimeshe wasgoingthrough: Thefinestand mostgrandlyconceived SonnetinourLanguage(atleast,itisonlyin Milton'sandin Wordsworth'sSonnetsthatIrecolectanyrival),andthisisnot my judgmentalone,butthatofthe manxaxe^ox^ev(yikonaxoojohn Hookham Free6. Blanco did notconsiderhavinghis English poemspublished.fate would haveit, however,that Coleridge would publish the sonnet,as he sent various pages of sonnetsto TheBijou,aChristmasalmanacalongthe Unesof Ackermann's succesful Forget-me-not. Among his own poems which he sentin 1828 he would mistakenly includethesonnetby Blanco White,whoprotested whenhefound out.butweought to notetheaccoladesthe Spanish writerwasgarneringasarisingliteraryand cultural figureofthetime.white wasthencomingtoenjoyliteraryprestigethrough hispoetic translations,ascanbegatheredfrom hisinterculturalactivity. 6 November28,1827,Life,I,439.Thusdocumented by Llorens(1971:303) whoaddedacomment from Leigh Hunt,includedinhiswel-knownanthologyofEnglishsonnetsentided TheBookoftheSonnet "Coleridgepronouncedthissonnet'thebestintheEnglishlanguage.Perhapsifhehadsaidthebestin Englishpoetry,thejudgment mighthaveappearedlesdisputable.initslanguagesomelitleimperfectionsarediscernible,whichdonotdetract,howeverfrom itssingular meritseveninthatrespect,especialyconsideringthattheauthor wasnotyoung when hecarneinto England,andthathethenspoke Englishlikeaforeigner.Inpointofthoughtthesonnetstandssupreme,perhapsabovealinanylanguage.Ñorcan weponderittodeeplyorwithtohopefulareverence." 235

6 TORRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios José María Blanco White would cary outvarioustranslationstwo years before penning "Night and Death." To these we can ad another poetic translation completed in 183 during hisstayin Dublin,along with yetanotherfrom 1840, signedfrom Liverpool,asweshalseshortly. 4. Translationsofpoetryinthe1920s The Germán publisher Ackermann'spublication, Variedades,appearedin 1823and served astheforum to divulgethetranslations which Blanco completed duringthis period.thefirstreléasecontainedtwotranslationsfrom Provencalandthre from English. Among histasksand undertakingsforthejournalcan befound an early, 129-linetranslation worthyofthehighestpraise. Thesourcetextwas"OntheretreatoftheFrenchfrom theheightsofsantarem, in Portugal," whosetitle wasabbreviatedinthetargettextto"sobrelaretiradadelos franceses de Santarem"(Ontheretreatofthe Frenchfrom Santarem).Thislocative omission('in Portugal') does notsuggestthat White(1994: )translatesin a fre manner. Letusreadthe opening ofthe poem bothinthe originalandinthe translation: Ontheproudheightswhichlooko'erTagus'flood, Indreadaray,thehostilearmiesstood; Withjealousvigilance,thro'dayandnight, Thishopesthebatle,thatpreparesforflight: The Gaelicchief,andhisdisheartenedhost, Feelthesurefailureoftheirdespot'sboast; Tho'famineurge,atackhedaresnottry, Hefearstofight,ñorfearshelestofly. Sobrelasaltascimasqueseespejan Deltajoenlacoriente,nocheydía Lasenemigashuestesseobservan Enangustiosoafán.Porlapelea Estaseagita,aquélaporlahuida. Burlada,eljefegaloysuslegiones Desudéspota miranlajactancia, Desanimadosya.Rabiosa,envano Elhambreapremia:éltemesushorores, Temelafugaytemelapelea. Thesourcetextwas writen by Richard B.Sheridan's7 15-yearoídson.The poem wasawardedaprizeatthe WinchesterSchoolanditsthemecelebratestheretreat 7 Anote ofgeneralinterest:hisfather's celebrated work, TheSchoolofScandal, wastranslated by Santander'sJoaquin TelesferodeTruebayCosío( ).Thetide washaescueladelbuenotonoorel seductor moralista.thefamily's wel-to-do situation as merchantsalowed him to studyin Franceand England. Uponreturningto Spain hehadto gointoexileoverseas.sheridan's work wasreceivedin Spain,latercitedinthe Revistaj RepertorioBimestredelaIsladeCuba(I,1831)(TheIslandofCuba'sBimonthly Review<ó"Maga^né)(I,1831)andhadevenbeenreviewedin ElIrisdeMéxicoon May31st,

7 Blanco White'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry:A Self-exikdWriterinEngland of Masena'sarmyinthe wakeofthreats whichsaidgeneralleveledagainstengland's troops.blanco(1994:260)explainsthat"becauseofthisrespect,altheenemiesof thefrenchoppresion wilrejoiceuponseeingthelinesioferthepublic." Nevertheles,thetranslatoranddirectorhimselfofthe VariedadesJournal,wherehepublished theverses,encouragedreaderstoexaminethesourcepoem,which wasincludedinits entdretyinthepublication.blanco would writethefolowing which wouldindirectly conveysomethoughts ontranslationtheory whileservingto capturethereader's interestand winhissympathy: (.)Ifalthosereading mynewspapercouldenjoythebeautyoftheoriginalenglish, whichishalprovideshortly,ishouldn'tdaréto presentatranslation which,in additiontothedefectsinherenttoaltranslations,andthose whichishalneverhave thetalenttoavoid,therearethose which oblige meto practicethiscraftdeprived of theleisure whichthese worksdemand.thetranslation wasdoneatamomentwhich should havebeenspentresting,andisonly meanttoconveyanideaoftheangleand mainthoughtsintheoriginal,forthose whocan'tunderstandthelanguagein whichit iswriten(.) Thethornyisueofdeathandexistence,whosedepthsheplumbsandspeaksto duringhisecclesiasticalperiod,isoneofhis work'srecurentthemes.elmensajerode Londres(orLasVariedades)presented-onJanuary 1,1823-hisversión ofthe welknown monologuefrom Hamlet,whose 3lines wereexpandedto43.the beautiful iambicpentameterisputintospanishinagroundbreaking work whichreads: Tobeornottobe thatisthequestion. Whether'tisnoblerinthe mindtosufer Theslingsandarowsofoutrageousfortune, Ortotakearmsagainstaseaoftroubles, Andbyopposingendthem?Todie-tosleep No more;andbyasleeptosay weend Theheart-ache,andthethousandnaturalshocks Thatfleshisheirto;'tisaconsummation Devoutlytobe wished.todie-tosleep, Tosleep!Perchancetodream.Ay,there'stherub; Forinthatsleepofdeath whatdreams maycome, When wehaveshufled ofthis mortalcoil, Mustgiveuspause.There'stherespect Thatmakescalamityofsolong Ufe. Seronoser.heaquílagrandeduda. Cuáles másnoble? Presentarelpecho Delaairadafortunaalassaetas, Otomararmascontraun mardeazares Y acabardeunavez? Morir.dormirse. Nada más.yescaparconsólounsueño A estedolordelalma,alchoqueeterno 237

8 TORRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios Queeslaherenciadelhombreenestavida. Hay másqueapetecer? Morir.dormirse. Dormir!Talvezsoñar.Ahíestáeldaño. Porque quiénsabeloshoriblessueños Quepuedenazorarenelsepulcro Alinfelicequeseabriócamino Deentreeltumultoyconfusióndelmundo? Blanco also approached the Englishman's playsthroughliterary criticism. He wrotethrearticles(garnica &Díaz 1994:273)onthetopicasawel-established writerentitled"thepictorialshakespeare,""noteson Hamlet"and"A Midsummer Night'sDream."8 Asforthetranslationsinto Spanish of worksshakespearecomposedcirca1601, Blanco's work occupiesaspecialplace. We mústrecognize Blanco Whiteasatrue literary greatforthereasons which weshalnow present.the paragraph which Blancotranslated wasthefirstknowntranslationinverse,asin 1772 Ramón dela Cruz prepared anindirectversión from J.F. Ducis's French translation, which departedto muchfrom the meaningstransmited bythe writerfrom Stratfordupon-Avon.In 1798 Leandro Fernándezde Moratíntranslatedthe wholethingina work distinguished byitseleganceandfaithfulnestothe original,but which was writen in dasic prose.thus, Blanco's translation presented above,though chronologicalythethird,wasrealythefirstoneinverse.laterdiere wouldfolow fourversionsappearing duringthe 19th Century.Carnerero(1825) wouldtransíate indirecdyfrom thefrench;avecila(1856)wouldbasehison Moratin's;Jaime Clark ( )translatedfrom the English;and Macpherson(1873)didthesame,but withafinalresultwhich wasafarcryfrom thesourcetext. Thethirdfragment which Blanco Whitetranslatedfrom Englishalsocarnefrom Shakespeare:the wordsofthomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, who upon being banishedby Richard I,reflected upon hissentence,aludingtohis'native English'. Thetranslatorand anthologertook advantage ofthiselement,adaptingitto his situationasone"self-exiled." Blanco madethethemefrom Richard Ihisown,using itto voice his own sentiments upon ariving in London (Duran 2005). The translation'sthemeisbasedonhisdesiretospeak English withtheeaseandprecisión he wouldliketo.theyoung Sevilian'seducationincludedthelanguageofhisIrish grandparents,whoseaccentwasfrowned uponingenteelenglishcircles. Weinclude afew Uneshere(Blanco White1994: ): Elidiomapatrioqueheaprendido Másdecuarentaaños,meesinútil Dehoyenadelante. Quéesmilengua Yapara mísinoharpadestemplada 8 Thethrearticlescarneoutinthe magazinethechristianteacher.thefirstini,1839(pp and );thesecondinthesameísue,onpp ;andthethirdinI(1840)onpp

9 Blanco Whik'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry:ASelf-exikdWriterinEngland 0instrumentosonoropuestoen manos Noacostumbradasapulsarsuscuerdas? ThelanguageIhavelearn'dtherefortyyears, MynativeEnglish,nowImustforgo; Andnow mytongue'suseisto meno more Thananunstringedvioloraharp, Orlikeacunninginstrumentcas'dup, Or,beingopen,putintohishands Thatknowsnotouchtotunetheharmony. Blancotranslatestheadjective'English'as'patrio'in orderto adaptand employ thethemetothelikingofthetranslator who-let'snotforget-selectstheexcerpts as an anthologer,like akind of etymologicalgardener choosing flowers from a garden. Blanco exploits Mowbray's question in orderto proclaim the Spaniard's voluntaryforgeting.thefinalexcerptshown oozes Blanco'stypicaldesireto own the Englishtongue: (.)Pasóeltiempo Deimitarbalbuciendoalanodriza Ysoyyaviejoparatomarayo. Sidelnativoaliento,deestasuerte Mepriváis,oh mirey,daismela muerte. 1am tooídtofawnuponanurse, Toofarinyearstobeapupilnow. Whatisthysentencethenbutspeechlesdeath, Whichrobs mytonguefrom breethingnativebreath? Thefouthtranslation whichheindudesinthefledglingjournal'sdebutalsocarne from Shakespeareandthetragedyof Hamletwhichthe Bard publishedin 1603.Here hecreated 96linesfrom the81-lineoriginal,goingbackto Act I,SceneIto capture theadulation,vanityandpoliticalafectation ofanaging manatcourt,polonius,who isdescribed as"an oíd,vainand nosycourtier."(blanco White 1994: ).The introduction whichthetranslatorcreated forhis Mesengersaysthat"Poloniusisa completeschemer,apalacegossip,always wilingtobadtalkhissuperiors,andnoles pompousandprofound withthoseservinghim." Shakespeare, who used Saxo Grammaticus' GestaDanorumashisbasis,portrays theimportance and gravity with which such miserablefools deal withthose most trivialandridiculousissues,asseeninthedialoguebetween Poloniusand Reynaldoin Denmark,regarding Polonius's absentson, whose whereabouts hetriesto discern whileremainingatthepalace. Youshaldo marvelouswisely,good Reynaldo. Beforeyouvisithim,to makeinquire Ofhisbehaviour. Enextremodiscreta,buen Reinaldo, Seráelhacerpesquisaantesdeverlo 239

10 TORRALBO CABALLERO, JuandeDios Y averiguarquéhace. When Polonius instructs Reynaldo to not dishonor his son during his investigationsin París,advising him toinvestígate his drinking,dueling,swearing, fights and even women, Reynaldo respondsthat"my Lord,that would dishonour him."poloniusthenjustifieshisrequestthus: You mustnotputanotherscandalonhim, Thatheisopentoincontinency; That'snotmy meaning:butbreathehisfaultssoquantly, Thatthey mayseem thetaintsofliberty; Sin másnimás. Oh! No!"Cum granusalis" Sehadedecir;perodeningún modo Pintarlodisoluto: nada menos! Thistranslation features some variations from the originaltext,such asthe express"cumgranusalis"-employedbythescholastics- whichreveáisthetranslator's specific education. Another of Blanco's atemptstotransmit Úiematerialin a way comprehensible for hisreaders comes when hetranslates Polonius'sreflection on lying('seyou now;/ Yourbaitoffalsehood,takethiscarp oftruth;/ Andthusdo we of wisdom and ofreach')thus:'(.) Ves ya claro/ cómo con este cebo de mentira/se pescalaverdad como unatrucha?'thetranslation expands uponthe originalthroughtheuseofatertiumcomparationis,evokingthe meaningsoughtwithan exampleandrenderingitmorelivelier,clearerand moreinteligible. When Reynaldo bidsfarewel:'pol.: God buy you;fare you wel./ Reyn.: Good mylord',thesocialhierarchyinvolvedappearsinthetranslationeven moreexplicitly, as Blanco hasthe characterssay: Adiós ybuen viaje./ Rein.: Besóosla mano',an elementwhich denotesthevasal-lordrelationship and which wasveryprominentin 18th-century Spanishliterature.9 5. Anew translation ofenglish versesin his maturity In 1840,two decadesafterthepublication ofthe English-to-Spanishtranslations justdiscussed, Blanco presented another poem from Shakespeare's plays.it was penned in Liverpool on February 7, Firmly setled in England, Blanco translated,into Spanishthistime,sevenlinesfrom TwelfthNight.Thefactthatnow,at age65,ourtranslatorchoseto deal withthiscomedyfulofloveafairs,indicatesa sentimental,gratefuland wel-adjusted spirit.they comefrom ActI,SceneIofthe work, which portraysthefemale psyche.blanco,in hiszealforclarification,entitled thetranslation "Mujer quecorazóntan finotiene".10 Dueitsbrevity, weincludeit hereinitsentirety: 9 Here we mustrecalthetheory oftranslation whichemerged atthecióseofthe 18th Centuryand wouldspanthecourseofthefolowingone. 10 Theselinescanbefoundinthe ManuscriptofPrinceton. 240

11 Blanco White'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry:A Self-exikdWriterinEngland O,shethathathaheartofthatfineframe Topaythisdebtoflovebuttoabrother, How wilshelove whentherichgoldenshaft Hathkil'dtheflockofalafectionselse ThatUveinher;whenliver,brain,andheart, Thesesovereignthrones,arealsuppü'd,andfil'd Hersweetperfections withoneselfking! Mujerquecorazóntanfinotiene, Queasípagaladeudadelcariño A un merohermano, conquéardortanpuro Noamará,alpuntoquelaflechadeoro Hayafindadoalinferiorrebaño Delosotrosafectos,cuandoeltrono Supremodesupecho,enqueresiden Susperfeccionescelestialestome Endominioabsolutoelreyvendado? ThefactthatBlanco Whitetranslated Shakespearean versesindiferentstagesof hislifereveáisto ushisvenerationforthe English writerand hisongoing dedication tohis works,andtothecraftoftranslatingingeneral.from the English musehealso translatedtheaforementioned composition by Richard B.Sheridan'sson. 6. Histimeasabidirectionaltranslatorofpoetry A seriesoftranslationsfrom Englishto Spanish haveled Blanco Whiteto be clasified asaunidirectdonaltranslator. However,adeeperexploration ofhis work beliesthisdescription,forcingustoreconsiderthisasesmentofhisproductionasa translator. White was,infact,abidirectionaltranslator,astheaboveheadingsuggests. Inadditiontotranslatingtheaforementioned Englishpoemsinto Spanish,other languagecombinationscanbeidentifiedin White'sbodyof work.firstly,the writer (1994:282)producedatranslationof Greek,whichcarnefrom Juliánthe Apostate's second epigram. This poem,"epigramaalórganodelemperadorjulianoelapóstata", ilustratesthe writer's multilingualcapacity and shedslighton his mastery ofthe Greeklanguage.Secondly, we can find asonnet writenin Spanish byjoaquín Lorenzo Vilanueva(Játiva1757-Dublín1837)which Blancotranslatedinto English. AccordingtoarchivesintheLiverpoolCulturalCentre(Ateneo),Blanco Whitehad Vilanueva'stwo-volume Vidaliteraria,publishedin Londoncirca1825,inhislibrary. White'snotesinthebook's marginsconfirm thathereadthe workveryclosely. In Blanco White produced an article,intheform ofareview,entitled "Spanish Poetry"for publication in Dublin's The University Reviewand Quarterly Magasgne. Thisreview carneoutthesameyearin whichjoaquín Lorenzo Vilanueva 11 Specificaly,published on pages ofthe aforementioned The UniversityReviei'andQuarterly Maga^ne, I. 241

12 TORRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios published his PoesíasescogidasintheIrish capital. Whiteindudedinitspagesthe Englishversión whichhehadpreparedofthesonnet: Dame,Señor,quepongayoentu mano Lospasosde mivida,yde mimuerte Elplazo,ymiledaotristesuerte, Sinindagartuimpenetrablearcano. Bástameamísaberquenofueenvano Darmeluzconquepuedaconocerte, Y ponermeensenderopordoacierte A subiratualcázarsoberano. Fueradeesto quiénsoyparalanzarme Detueternosaberenlaaltasima Yjuzgarqué medañaomeconviene? Quéhará miorgulosinodespeñarme? Queelqueasupropiavoluntadsearima Sobrecañacascadasesostiene. Thus,Blanco Whiteisintruthabidirecrionaltranslator,asevidencedinthispoem which wasalsotheonlycompletespanish-to-englishtranslationofapoem onrecord by Blanco: Lord,mayIfrelytothycaredivine Theorderingof myfortuneshereresign; Tothecommitthenumberingofmydays, Ñorseektoquestionthy mysteriousways. Enoughfor metoknow'twasnotinvain Thougav'stmelighttrueknowledgetoobtain, Andset'stme,outofthyexceedinglove Inthesurepaththatleadstoblisabove. Beyondthat,whatam Itotrytosound Ofknowledgeinfinitethedepthsprofound? Todarétojudge whatsuits meorwhatharms? Canhumanpridedoaughtthoughupinarms? Lethim whotrustshiswayward wiltakeheed; Heleans,alas,uponabrokenreed. Thissonnetdealswithreligiousthemesandappealstothe Almighty,atthesame timeitcontainsapleatobeshownthe waytodo Hiswil. 7. Sotnecontextualnoteson histranslations When attheage 5the Spanish writer wouldrememberhisexperiencesin his wel-known Autobiographyhe wouldrecalthespeechfrom Mowbray,the Duke of Norfolk.Itcomesfrom ActI,Scene IofRichardIatthe momentin whichthe Duke hasjustheardthesentence ofbanishment,andrespondstothe King.The speechexudesdisquiet,despondency,butalsolearning.therecentarivalin London seizeduponthesethemestoexpounduponhisparalelsituationof"linguisticpros- 242

13 Blanco White'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry:A Self-exiled WriterinEngland tration".though Whitecouldspeak English-withanIrishaccent-from childhood, helackedthefluidityhe wishedtohave,aswelastheaccentnecesarytoopératein London's mostselectsocialcircles.thetranslatorbemoansnotbeingabletousehis mothertongue,spahish: ('Elidioma patrio queheaprendido/ Másdecuarenta años, meesinútil/dehoy en adelante(.)',6-8).("my mothertongue whichi learned/for morethanfortyyears,isuseles/from thisdayon.") Hereferstohis nativelanguageasa'harpadestemplada'(8-11)("aharpoutoftune"): (.) Quéesmilengua Yapara mísinoharpadestemplada Oinstrumentosonoropuestoen manos Noacostumbradasapulsarsuscuerdas? Thesecommunicativeshortcomings,thisconstantvexaton athavingtoremain silent,spurhim tolearn English.He wouldexplaininhisa.utobiography(1988: )thatthisisthegreatmisfortuneofanexpatríate.hislackofanaturalmasteryof Englishleadshim todescribehimselfasa"poorinsectontheedgeofahole which anantilionis makinginthesand." Hefinishesthecitedpasagethus:"Sidelnativo aliento,deestasuerte/ Mepriváis,oh mirey,daismela muerte"(18-19). Jesús Diaz(Garnica &Díaz 1994:16)explainsinthe"Introduction"totheObra poéticacompleta(completepoeticworks)that Blanco wasthe prodigalson who never returned.josé María Blanco Crespo wasprolifícin Spainbefore headingoverseas, andjosé MaríaBlanco White wasprodigiousin Englandintermsofhisculturalproduction.Inhisclasesofeloquenceandpoetryandinhis Humanitieslesons,atSevile'sSociedaddeAmigosdelPáisn heheraldedatransition which could beseenapproachingduringthetwilightoftheend-of-the-century'srigidliterature(1994:427) andthe"emergenceofanewliteratureandanew society." He wasalreadyharboring alatentdesireto moveonfrom thepoeticconventionsofthe Neoclasicalage.Upon arivingin Londonhefounded Elespañol,amonthlyjournalwhichhehimself wrote (Goytisolo2010). Blanco wasawriterand,ofcourse,atranslatorinhisownright.letusadafew observationsregarding hiscareeraspreviously discused. When hearivedto Englandheatended Campbel'sliterarycircle,andthatheadedbythepublisher Muray, diningandresidingatholand House.But and hereistheunjustparadox while hisliterarystarwasrisingin England,in Spainhe wasgradualyforgoten,beingattacked attimesby moralizing authorities who considered his movementsinlifeas religiouslyimproper. MenéndezPelayo wouldrescue Blanco Whitefrom beingentirelyforgoteninhis Historia de osheterodoxosespañoles13 -though not withoutacertain pejorativetone. Gladstone,inhaEspañaModerna(1894)referedexplicidytotheSevilian's work,and 12 Acomplete"masterclas"canbereadin Garnica &Diaz,1994: ,in which-inakind of appendix-theyadthearicie whichauguredthe"new airof Romanticism,"and "announcedthe emergenceofthenewliteratureandanewsociety." 13 ForfulcoroborationofthisseVolumeVI,specificalythe1848edition,pp

14 TORRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios in 1920 Mario Méndez Bejarano publishedabookonhim.otherexperts whohave madeaneforttorecognize Blanco'sdistinguishedculturalwork-from thelate19th centuryalthe wayuntiltheearly21st-include Vicente Llorens,Antonio Garnica, Jesús Díazand Antonio Ríos,somein Academia,andsomefrom thetranquilityand leisureofthe monastery.theystandamongthose whohaveservedtosalvageblanco White'sliterarylegacy.Thepresentdocumentseekstoexplore White'srichcosmopolitaninfluencesandtheremarkableseriesofEnglishtranslationsheleft. Thefledglingtranslatorhadalreadysharpened hisskils whenhetranslatedfrom Frenchsomeonehundred Unesinhis"Églogaal Mesías",whoseoriginalversión,by AlexanderPope,wasentitled"Mesiah,ASacred Egloge".Assuch,itwasanindirect translation ofthe English poem. Blanco's approach clearlyilustratestheinterest sharedbysevile'sliterarylightsin Englishliterature.Thisexampleindicaresthatthe firstenglish poetry whichthefriends ofsevile'sacademiadeletrashumanaswas exposedto carnethrough Frenchtranslations. Nevertheles,there wasalso direct contactwith Englishpoetry,ascariedoutby Lista,atleast,whotranslatedthepoem which Blancosenthim ("Nightand Death"),publishingitin 1837.Blanco himself wouldcomeíntodirectcontactwith Englishverse whenhe movedto Englishsoil. The Sevilian'sthree-decade stayin England would yield,among many other interculturalcreations,anabundanceoftranslations.therangeoftranslations which Blanco Whitecompletedfrom Englishto SpanishshowshisinterculturalÍmpetusas wellashispredilectionforthegeniusofshakespeare.blanco waspositivelybowled overbythe Elizabethan'skeen understandingandinsightinto human nature.the translator,inthe heading ofhistranslation of RichardI,U afirms hisinclination towardsthe Shakespearean world,praisingthe English poet's merits,beautiesand uniquenes.inaddition,heexplainsthegapsinherenttoanytranslation,anddiscusseshow languagedefinesa man'slimits,anticipatingthetheory oflanguageto be presented by such linguists and philosophers as Witgenstein (1969:64)-'Die Grenzen meinersprachebedeutendie Grenzen meiner Welt'-: The meritofthegreatenglishpoetwhoseñamegracesthisaricieissouniqueandthe beautyofhis work,toputitone way,issocloselylinkedtothelanguagein whichitis writen,thatitisimposibletosucesfulyshareitwiththose whodon'tunderstand English perfectly.languagescan becaled dead notonly whenthereisnolongera people whospeakthem.those whoprocesthem visualy,andthroughtheinanimate mediationofthepage,arelikethose whoonlyknow apersonfrom hisportrait.onlya longstayinacountry whoselanguage weaim tolearncanprovideus withthekeyto understandingitspeople'sspirit.ahundredthousand memories mustarise when we hearcertain wordsif we meantocompletelypenétratethe meaning ofawriter,ofa traepoetwhoknew howtousethem. Thefirstexerciseinpoetrytranslation which wehavepresentedinthischapter, nevertheles,doesnotcomefrom Shakespeare,butratherfrom avery precocious youngpoet.hisfirstpoem translatedfrom English waspublishedin1811,soonafter 14 Foundinthecitedvolumeof Variedades( ),pp

15 Blanco White'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry:ASelf-exikdWriterinEngland hisarivalin England,andfeaturedoverahundredlinescomposedoriginalybya15- yearoíd."sobrelaretiradadelosfrancesesdesanterem"wouldnotbeknowntoday ifitsoriginalauthorhadn'tbeen Richard B.Sheridan'sson. Withrespecttotheparagraphstranslatedfrom the worksofthegreatelizabethan poet,twofragmentsarefrom Hamlet,onefrom RichardI,andanotherfrom Twelfih Night. Noteworthyisthetimeelapsedfrom histranslation ofthefirstthre parts (1823,in London)untilhe presented hislasttranslationin 1840,one yearbefore pasingaway. He had been aprofesed Anglicanfortwelveyearsand had decidedto fuly embrace England.Tothisendheundertookaprogram oflearningandre-educatdon inorderto becomefuly English.He wasapplaudedforhisprose,and wouldthen seeksuccesin poetry,which would come withthepoemsheintroducedintothe homes ofhisfriends,such asthe sonnet"nightand Death," which he would dedícateto Coleridge,sendingitbothto him,in six months afterits composition-andto Alberto Lista,whoseversión waspublishedin 1837and was thefirsttranslationinto Spanish,accordingtotheresearch wehaveperformed and theinformation which wehavebeenabletoanalyze. Wereferheretotheotherroad whichhetookinhisbidirectionaltranslations.let ustakethecaseoflorenzo Vilanueva'ssonnetwhichbegins withtheline"dame, Señor,quepongayoentu mano."thepoem translated by Whitefrom Spanishto Englishevidenceshisliteraryprowes,asheembelisheditbothintermsofsound and meteras welasinstyle."lord, MayIFreely"isaproductof Blanco White's bilingualeducation and vividly displays his dual mastery of Spanish and English leters. If we weretoundertakeaphilologicalanalysis,likeconclusionscouldbedrawn. Letus makeafew.his"soliloquiodehamlefisfaithfultotheoriginal,bothin meter andsemanticaly,despiteafew necesary modifications madeby White,suchashis expansiónofthepasageby10lines,orhisextensiveseriesof modulations which we havepointed out. Mostremarkable,however,ishow the Spanish poetapplied an initialrule of meterand maintained semanticequivalence,thusconveyingtothe Spanishreaderalthe metaphysicalandreflectivepotencylatentinthesourcetext. Thephrasesandsentencesthatcontainsome modulationsandshiftsinrelationto the originaltexthelp ustoinferthat Whiteappliessome Romanticideasin his approachtotheisue oftranslation. Onthe one hand,hisefortand his way of translatingdenoteindividualism andfreedom and,ontheother,inthesametonethat Coleridge,hedoesnotbelieveintheposibilityoftranslation,oratleast,he makes explicitthatitisextremely dificultto maintain,inthere-writentext,theelements thatareinherentintheprimarytext Aswehavequotedatthebeginning,thereisahandwriten markinhis"an Eclogueforthe Mesiah" whereheclarinesthathedoesnotknow whethertocalitranslationorimitationtothisnew poem done byhimself,becausetheñameoftranslationdenoteslesinventionandefort,andtheterm imitationis tovagueanddoesnotdenotethelinkandconnectionthathealwayshasobserved withtheoriginal. 245

16 TOKRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios Tocapofouranalysisofthetextfrom Hamletwehavecitedthefragmentby Moratín,in whichaslowingefectinprosestandsout,and whoseanalysisservesto spotlighttheabletranslationofdificult,opaqueexcerptsin Blanco'spoeticversión. These existentialconcerns from Shakespeare, which would betaken upin Romanticliterature, would delight Blanco White,asthey fitperfecdy with his worldview and hisown burning metaphysicalconcerns. Blanco wasatracted by Shakespeare's"epistemologicalfury"(Jiménez Hefernan 1996:30).He presented universalisuesand showed,inthe words of Borges,how "words aresymbols which positashared memory"(borges 1977:37),so centralto Shakespeare's dramaticuniverse,aswelascrucialtothetranslatorandtheanthologer. The English-Spanishtranslator'stimein England wouldspanfrom 1810until 1841,withthedecadeofthe1820'sstandingoutashis mostprolific,particularly duringthefirsthalf.thus,blanco White's mostfruitful,creative period carne during his daysin England, during which he would found El españoland colaborateonperiodicalpublicationssuchasthe Variedades. Anotherfacetof Blanco White worthy ofatentionishisdedicationto prose translation.thiscanbeseeninhistranslationsofpedrode Cebalos,inhisSpanish versión ofthebookofcommonprayer,inhisprosetranslationsof Wiliam Paley,and A.C.Clairaut'sFrench volumeongeometry,oreveninhisenglishversionsoftwo ofhisowntales("el AlcázardeSevila"and"Lasintrigasvenecianas")This work standsinadditiontootheroriginalworks,suchashistranslationsofpasagesfrom La HistoriadelGranTamorlán,fragments he did from the CrónicadeDonAlvarode Luna,andevenhistranslationofaworkin Germánoncognition:TheoryojCognition. These worksoferusanimpresivedisplayof White'scosmopolitanandintercultural capacities. Theaforementioned worksestablish Blanco White'sasaprolifictranslatorof English. Moreover, he can even be clasified as not only bilingual but multilingual,ashetranslated Germán and Frenchin additionto English,notto mention hisinverse workfrom Englishto Spanish.Inlightofthisitisclearthat Whiteposesedatleastatrilingualmind.AccordingtohisLife,hededicatedtime each daytoreviewingand perfecting hiscommand ofclasicallanguages,inthis waybecomingabletoreadthe worksof Homerintheoriginal,andtotransíate anepigram from Juliánthe Apostateinto English. 8. Aromanticeducatedinthe"Sevilian Enlightenment" José María Blanco Crespo,firsteducated within the milieu ofthe Spanish Enlightenment,lived agood partofhislifeimmersedin andinfluenced bythe Romantic movementin England. He would acquirehisearliestculturalnotionsin Andalusia, with Neoclasicism in fulvogue. Hisfamily carne down from Irish ancestors.infact,hissurname"blanco" wastranslatedto Spanishfrom theoriginal English"White".Athomehis Catholicparentstaughthim toreadusingstoriesfrom the Oíd Testament,thelivesofthesaintsandthe miraclesof Mary.His mothersaw 246

17 Blanco White'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry:A Self-exiledWriterinEngland toitthathelearned Latínand English,thelaterbeingasecond nativelanguageat home. Whitestudied ata Dominican school where hisdesireto becomeapriestot clergymen was welreceived.helearneditalianinordertocompare Luzán's Poética with Muratori's Delaperfectapoesía. He wasabletolearnfrenchthrough Telémaco.His childhoodfriend Manuel Maríade Mármolencouragedhim tostudy Castilianpoetry, andhe wasexposedto Englishman FrancisBacon'sNovumOrganum.He wouldform afriendship with Arjona,theferventdefender ofclasicaltaste. Blanco White's literary sensibilities were shaped within the end-of-the-century Neoclasical environment. Nevertheles,Blanco Whitestandsasatransitionalfigureinthehistory ofour Literature(Garnica &Diaz1994:21),theharbingerofawayofthoughtbridgingthe Anden Regime,withitspoliticalandliteraryprecepts,andanew societyoffreedoms andprogres.histranslationsreflectthissamedichotomy. Blanco Whitelived duringthe era during which English Romanticism was nascent, which servesto explainthe nature ofthe Spanish versions ofhistales publishedin Forgetmenotandinthe Variedades,aswelasthetranslationsindudedin thepagesof theformerpublication.these worksfeatured elementsofnostalgia, magic,the evasión ofreality,confesion,"autobiographicalintrospection," "the celebration ofthe Self',and"identity mystification"(dietz 1997:10).Also present wasaworld oflegend approachedthroughtheimagination and memory(zavala 1982).16 Upon arivingin Britain he wouldthoroughly embrace his new land's culture.hefeatured yetanother Romanticaspectwithinhisown nature,ashe was haunted byaperpetualsenseofdisatisfactdon,thecrisisof modern manduringthe transitionfrom the18th Centurythroughthedawnofthe19th.Thiscrisisprompted him tocontémplateexistential,metaphysicalandtheologicalquestions,ashecarneto incarnateexactlythefolowing"warning"from Wordsworth and Coleridge(1994: 106)atthebeginningoftheirLyricalBaladr. ItisthehonourablecharacteristicofPoetrythatits materialsareto befoundin every subject which caninterestthehuman mind.theevidenceofthisfactisto besought, notinthe writingsof Critics,butinthose ofpoetsthemselves.(.) Theyshould ask themselvesifitcontainsanaturaldelineation ofhuman passions,human characters, andhumanincidents;andiftheanswerbefavourabletotheauthor's wishes,thatthey shouldconsenttobepleasedinspiteofthat mostdreadfulenemytoourpleasures,our ownpre-establishedcodesofdecisión. 16 Anotherindicationof White'sRomanticism -along withthatoftherestoftheemigres-isthehistoricalnovelwhich Telesforo detrueba wouldpublishin1829,thecastilian,spuredbyhisprevioussuccesswith Góme^Arias(whichhepublishedin1828,inspiredbyLaNiñaby Gómez Ariasde Calderón). TheCastilianrecreatesamedievalseting withcontentfrom thepopularimaginationandpoetrybasedon thereignofpedroiofcastile,drawingonthechroniclesofchancelorpedro Lópezde Ayala.In1831 hepublished TheIncógnitoin London,asocialportrait,folowed byakindofdialogueentitled Parísand hondón.itisevidenthow Trueba wasinfluenced by WalterScot.If weconsiderthe DukeofRivas'El moro expósitoanditsimpactwegainasharperview ofthekind of Romanticescapism cultivatedbythe emigres. 247

18 TOKRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios Blanco White-asaRomanticpoet,asaman ofhistimeandasahuman being - embodiestheinstability,disquietand dissidencestired up bythe French Revolution, featufes which would cometo define hiseforts ontheliterarysceneand his own, personalspiritualanguish. In he putforward adoctrinaire defense ofimagination,referingtothe tales ofjuan Manuel and their Oriental model. Blanco White,as a wel-versed Romantic,arguedinfavorofpoetictruth,and asympathy with medievalism18,traits uterlyintune withthe Romanticagenda.Blancoexplaineditthis way: Thesupernatural machineryemployedintheprecedingtale,orthesuppositionthatby some meansunknownthe human mind may besubjectedto acomplete delusion, during whichitexistsinaworld ofherowncreation,perfectlyindependentoftime andspace,hasastronghold on what mightbecaled man'snaturalprejudices.far from therebeinganythingrevolting orpalpablyabsurdinsuch anadmision,the obscurityitselfofthenatureoftimeandspace,andthephenomenaofthedreaming anddelirious mind,arereadytogiveitacolouringoftruth.thesucces,indeed,ofthe tales which havebeencomposed uponthebasis,proveshow readily men ofalages andnationshaveacknowledged,whatwe mightcali,itspoeticaltruth. Blanco'sliterary positionscelébrate Romanticism andturntotheimagination of one likejuan Manuel, die medievalism of El Cid,and the simplicity ofjorge Manrique.In Variedades19he would writethefolowing: In mostofthe Castilian poets,from Garcilaso downto ourtime,oneobservesthat theyrarelysay whatthey wantto,butratherwhattheycan.rhyme,italian meter(with theirsetingandlackofflexibilityinourlanguage)andacertainfalsenotionofpoetic language which doesnotalowthem tosayanythingbutwhatotherpoetshavesaid, have deprivedthem ofthefreedom ofthoughtand expresion.the worksofthe SpanishpoetsoftheItalianschoolareaseriesofimitationsandrepetitions,beautiful andpleasantattimes,buttiringasawhole,withoutauthenticityoracorespondence between whatthepoetsaysand whathefeels.in Manrique'spoem onefelsthe absence ofsome adornment,especialytowardsthe end,but,though neithervery pasionateñorloving,thereisnottheslightestsignofafectationinit. Wefindinitan exactportraitoftheauthorwhenhe wroteit,thatis,abraveyoung manconvincedof thetruth ofthosereligiousbeüefs which hisfather'sdeathservedto bolsterin him; melanchoücbutnotdespondent;in mourning,butwithdecorum. 17 AcommentpublishedinIsueXI,1814,p.103.Iiorens(1979b: )relatessaidarticletoSchlegel'sthoughtsregarding Macbeth:"WhetherinShakespeare'stimepeoplebelievedinghostsand witches ornot,istotalyirelevantwhenjustifyingthepoet'semploymentofprexistingtraditionsin Hamktand MacBeth. (.) Onthis(humannature)thepoetbasedhimself,appealingtothefearoftheunknown,the senseofnature'sdarkside,andthe worldofthespirit,whichtheenlightenmentthoughtithadtotaly overeóme."(acourseofkcturesondraniaticartandüterature,london,1845:407). 18 Hedefended,forinstance,theSongoftheCidasanearlyilustrationofnationalgenius.(Llorens,1970b: 401)andastrongbulwarkagainstthedecadenceofthe Modern Age. 19CopyI,1824,p

19 Blanco White'sAnglophilia,TranslationsandPoetry: ASelf-exiledWriterinEngland Thisdeclaration ofhisown principiesechoes Wordsworth and Coleridge(1994: 108)andtheir Romanticafirmations.Letusconsiderthe wordsof Blanco Whitein lightofthisparagraphfrom the Englishpoets: Anaccuratetasteinpoetry(.)can onlybeproduced byseverethoughtandalong continuedintercourse withthebest modelsofcomposition.(.) Thetaleof Goody Blake and Hary Gilíisfounded on a wel-authenticated fact whathappenedin Warwickshire.Oftheotherpoemsinthecolection,itmaybepropertosaythatthey areeitherabsoluteinventions oftheauthors,orfacts whichtook place within his personalobservationorthatofhisfriend. Blanco White'sliteraryideas,bothin his poetic work as welasin hisliterary criticism,revealafruitfulevolution withitsrootsfoundintheclasicalsensibilitiesof the Sevilianschoolofhisage. Duringthefirstthird ofthe 19th Century he would advanceaestheticalyfrom afew outmoded positions-attimes wordyandafected - towardstheemerging Romantic movement. With hisarticlesofliterary criücism as evidence,wecanargüethatblanco wastrulyapioneerof modernliterarycriticism in Spain. Blanco White absorbed the ingredients of English Romanticism and would ilustratethose new aestheticideas.some ofthe halmarks which would define his literature would beitsnaturalness,spontaneousflow,thesincerity ofitsconfessions, itsorganicdevelopment,diepast,therealm oflegend,theneedforevasión,defiance ofthe world,disconformity,spiritualanguish,disenchantment,disquiet, medievalism andimagination.theseelementsthustietogether,perfectly capturing his work and hischaracter. Hisaestheticnotdonsandthinkingcontained metaphysicaland politicaldoubts,so hechangedboth hisreligiónandcountry.hisdiscontentandtheinnerdisquietofhis dynamicspiritspured him to alterinherentaspects ofhis Ufeand character. His actions werealsoborn ofhumanandethicalconflicts with Catholiccelibacy.Hethus forged anew selfandidentity, which would begin with his double ñame: Blanco White,thelaterrecoveringhistraditionalIrishsurname. Blanco wasinspired by adecided anglophilia,and from ayoung age exhibited dear signs of hislove for English things,as when he emulated Pope's eclogue, published Englishpoemsinthe CoreodeSevila,orwenttothe matinorderto defend Reinoso'sÍMinocenciaperdida,when Quintana hadleveledtheseverestcriácismsatit in aruthles artide publishedin VariedadesdeCiencias,Literaturay Artes despiteit being an admirableimitation of Milton's work.these earlyflirtations with English literature wouldlatercometofruitionin Blanco'spen. When helivedin England his dualnature would reach its peak. Romanticism enthused him,justasitdid the Schlegelbrothers. Blanco's writing wasalso marked andinspired bythe verses of Shakespeare,inthesame waythatthe Germans weretaken with Romanticism inful swing. 249

20 TORRALBO CABALLERO,JuandeDios 9. Conclusión Blanco Whiterepresentstheepitomeofculturalfusión between Spanishand Englishleters,and his workpresentsavivid portraitof Anglo-Spanishinterculturalism. Theconsonancebetweenhislifeand workrepresentsaharmoniousunity whichperfectlyilustratesthenatureofhisera. Blanco White'slifespannedfrom Sevileto Cádizto Madrid,andanotherstage lasting overthre decadesin England. Blanco's career,thus,featurestwo weldefined,stages.thefirstperiod wasoneofaspanishlifelivedin Sevile,markedby histheologicalstudiesandhisserviceasapriest,andbyhisinvolvementintheculturalandliteraryeventsoftheday.thesecondphaseencompaseshisothercultural, religiousandliterarylife,thisonein GreatBritain,defined byavoluntaryexile-a decisión born ofhissensethathe wasnotfreintelectualy orasapersonin his country,despitetheafection heharboredforthecityofhisbirth. Duringthisself-exilehe woulddedícateagoodpartofhistimetodiferentinterculturalandculturaltasks,specificalythetranslation ofenglishpoetry.amongthe texts whichtheauthorelectedtotransíate,numerousfragmentsofshakespearestand out,withtheplotsofthese worksattimeseven miroring Blanco'sownlife. José María Blanco White'sanglophiliaencompased both writingdirecdyin English,as welashiscontributionsto Englishculturethrough diferentjournalsofthe era. Withrespecttohistranslation work,thefragmentshetranslatedfrom Englishto Spanishandviceversa werebothtrulyremarkable. References Juande DiosToralbo Cabalero ALONSO,C.(ed.),Historiadelaliteraturaespañola,vol.5.Hadaunaliteraturanacional Madrid.Crítica2010. BLANCO WHITE,J.M.,TheUfeoftheRp.J. BlancoWhite(2tomos),presentada allector españolpor A.Garnicacomo AutobiografíadeBlanco White.,Obrapoéticacompleta. Madrid:Visor1994., ObrainglesadeBlancoWhite(traducción yprólogo dejuan Goytisolo). Madrid: Alfaguara 1998.,SeminarioPatriótico.Sevila,1809.A.Garnica &R.Rico(eds.),Granada:Almed2005. BORGES,J.L.,Ellibrodearena. Madrid:Alianza1977. CARBONEL ICORTÉS,O.,Traducciónj cultura. Delaideologíaaltexto.Salamanca: Ediciones Colegiode España CHEW,S. C, & R. D. ALTICK, "TheNineteenthCenturyandAfter( )",en A. C. BAUGH (ed.),a LiteraryHistoryofEngland.London:Routledge &Kegan Paul,1967, CÓMITRE NARVÁEZ,I.y MARTÍN CINTO, M.(eds.),Traducciónj Cultura.El Retodela Transferencia Cultural. Málaga:Librosencasa2002. DÍAZ PLAJA,G.,Introducciónalestudiodelromanticismoespañol. Madrid:Espasa

Mannen min heter Ingar. Han er også lege. Han er privatpraktiserende lege og har et kontor på Grünerløkka sammen med en kollega.

Mannen min heter Ingar. Han er også lege. Han er privatpraktiserende lege og har et kontor på Grünerløkka sammen med en kollega. Kapittel 2 2.1.1 Familien min Hei, jeg heter Martine Hansen. Nå bor jeg i Åsenveien 14 i Oslo, men jeg kommer fra Bø i Telemark. Jeg bor i ei leilighet i ei blokk sammen med familien min. For tiden jobber

Detaljer

Slope-Intercept Formula

Slope-Intercept Formula LESSON 7 Slope Intercept Formula LESSON 7 Slope-Intercept Formula Here are two new words that describe lines slope and intercept. The slope is given by m (a mountain has slope and starts with m), and intercept

Detaljer

Eksamen ENG1002/1003 Engelsk fellesfag Elevar og privatistar/elever og privatister. Nynorsk/Bokmål

Eksamen ENG1002/1003 Engelsk fellesfag Elevar og privatistar/elever og privatister. Nynorsk/Bokmål Eksamen 22.11.2012 ENG1002/1003 Engelsk fellesfag Elevar og privatistar/elever og privatister Nynorsk/Bokmål Nynorsk Eksamensinformasjon Eksamenstid Hjelpemiddel Eksamen varer i 5 timar. Alle hjelpemiddel

Detaljer

THE MONTH THE DISCIPLINE OF PRESSING

THE MONTH THE DISCIPLINE OF PRESSING THE MONTH THE DISCIPLINE OF PRESSING Nehemiah 4:1-9 NIV 1 [a ] When Sanballat heard that we were rebuilding the wall, he became angry and was greatly incensed. He ridiculed the Jews, 2 and in the presence

Detaljer

EN Skriving for kommunikasjon og tenkning

EN Skriving for kommunikasjon og tenkning EN-435 1 Skriving for kommunikasjon og tenkning Oppgaver Oppgavetype Vurdering 1 EN-435 16/12-15 Introduction Flervalg Automatisk poengsum 2 EN-435 16/12-15 Task 1 Skriveoppgave Manuell poengsum 3 EN-435

Detaljer

GEO231 Teorier om migrasjon og utvikling

GEO231 Teorier om migrasjon og utvikling U N I V E R S I T E T E T I B E R G E N Institutt for geografi Emnerapport høsten 2013: GEO231 Teorier om migrasjon og utvikling Innhold: 1. Informasjon om emnet 2. Statistikk 3. Egenevaluering 4. Studentevaluering

Detaljer

Vekeplan 4. Trinn. Måndag Tysdag Onsdag Torsdag Fredag AB CD AB CD AB CD AB CD AB CD. Norsk Matte Symjing Ute Norsk Matte M&H Norsk

Vekeplan 4. Trinn. Måndag Tysdag Onsdag Torsdag Fredag AB CD AB CD AB CD AB CD AB CD. Norsk Matte Symjing Ute Norsk Matte M&H Norsk Vekeplan 4. Trinn Veke 39 40 Namn: Måndag Tysdag Onsdag Torsdag Fredag AB CD AB CD AB CD AB CD AB CD Norsk Engelsk M& Mitt val Engelsk Matte Norsk Matte felles Engelsk M& Mitt val Engelsk Norsk M& Matte

Detaljer

Han Ola of Han Per: A Norwegian-American Comic Strip/En Norsk-amerikansk tegneserie (Skrifter. Serie B, LXIX)

Han Ola of Han Per: A Norwegian-American Comic Strip/En Norsk-amerikansk tegneserie (Skrifter. Serie B, LXIX) Han Ola of Han Per: A Norwegian-American Comic Strip/En Norsk-amerikansk tegneserie (Skrifter. Serie B, LXIX) Peter J. Rosendahl Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Han Ola of Han Per:

Detaljer

Endelig ikke-røyker for Kvinner! (Norwegian Edition)

Endelig ikke-røyker for Kvinner! (Norwegian Edition) Endelig ikke-røyker for Kvinner! (Norwegian Edition) Allen Carr Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Endelig ikke-røyker for Kvinner! (Norwegian Edition) Allen Carr Endelig ikke-røyker

Detaljer

Macbeth: Frozen Scenes

Macbeth: Frozen Scenes Macbeth: Frozen Scenes Using Frozen Scenes There are several ways to use these scenes 1. Along with the scene one can give the students the lines from the play and ask them to perform their scene with

Detaljer

Hvordan ser pasientene oss?

Hvordan ser pasientene oss? Hvordan ser pasientene oss? Safio Bilqeyr Jimale og Arild Aambø Migrasjonshelse PMU 2018 Hva gruer du mest for når du skal til legen? Konsultasjonstiden strekker ikke til Legene ser bare det som er interessant

Detaljer

Den som gjør godt, er av Gud (Multilingual Edition)

Den som gjør godt, er av Gud (Multilingual Edition) Den som gjør godt, er av Gud (Multilingual Edition) Arne Jordly Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Den som gjør godt, er av Gud (Multilingual Edition) Arne Jordly Den som gjør godt,

Detaljer

Kartleggingsskjema / Survey

Kartleggingsskjema / Survey Kartleggingsskjema / Survey 1. Informasjon om opphold i Norge / Information on resident permit in Norway Hvilken oppholdstillatelse har du i Norge? / What residence permit do you have in Norway? YES No

Detaljer

KROPPEN LEDER STRØM. Sett en finger på hvert av kontaktpunktene på modellen. Da får du et lydsignal.

KROPPEN LEDER STRØM. Sett en finger på hvert av kontaktpunktene på modellen. Da får du et lydsignal. KROPPEN LEDER STRØM Sett en finger på hvert av kontaktpunktene på modellen. Da får du et lydsignal. Hva forteller dette signalet? Gå flere sammen. Ta hverandre i hendene, og la de to ytterste personene

Detaljer

GEOV219. Hvilket semester er du på? Hva er ditt kjønn? Er du...? Er du...? - Annet postbachelor phd

GEOV219. Hvilket semester er du på? Hva er ditt kjønn? Er du...? Er du...? - Annet postbachelor phd GEOV219 Hvilket semester er du på? Hva er ditt kjønn? Er du...? Er du...? - Annet postbachelor phd Mener du at de anbefalte forkunnskaper var nødvendig? Er det forkunnskaper du har savnet? Er det forkunnskaper

Detaljer

5 E Lesson: Solving Monohybrid Punnett Squares with Coding

5 E Lesson: Solving Monohybrid Punnett Squares with Coding 5 E Lesson: Solving Monohybrid Punnett Squares with Coding Genetics Fill in the Brown colour Blank Options Hair texture A field of biology that studies heredity, or the passing of traits from parents to

Detaljer

Assignment. Consequences. assignment 2. Consequences fabulous fantasy. Kunnskapsløftets Mål Eleven skal kunne

Assignment. Consequences. assignment 2. Consequences fabulous fantasy. Kunnskapsløftets Mål Eleven skal kunne Consequences Kunnskapsløftets Mål Eleven skal kunne KRL Filosofi og etikk reflektere over filosofiske temaer knyttet til identitet og livstolkning, natur og kultur, liv og død, rett og galt. gjøre rede

Detaljer

FIRST LEGO League. Härnösand 2012

FIRST LEGO League. Härnösand 2012 FIRST LEGO League Härnösand 2012 Presentasjon av laget IES Dragons Vi kommer fra Härnosänd Snittalderen på våre deltakere er 11 år Laget består av 4 jenter og 4 gutter. Vi representerer IES i Sundsvall

Detaljer

The regulation requires that everyone at NTNU shall have fire drills and fire prevention courses.

The regulation requires that everyone at NTNU shall have fire drills and fire prevention courses. 1 The law The regulation requires that everyone at NTNU shall have fire drills and fire prevention courses. 2. 3 Make your self familiar with: Evacuation routes Manual fire alarms Location of fire extinguishers

Detaljer

Enkel og effektiv brukertesting. Ida Aalen LOAD september 2017

Enkel og effektiv brukertesting. Ida Aalen LOAD september 2017 Enkel og effektiv brukertesting Ida Aalen LOAD.17 21. september 2017 Verktøyene finner du her: bit.ly/tools-for-testing Har dere gjort brukertesting? Vet du hva dette ikonet betyr? Mobil: 53% sa nei Desktop:

Detaljer

Dynamic Programming Longest Common Subsequence. Class 27

Dynamic Programming Longest Common Subsequence. Class 27 Dynamic Programming Longest Common Subsequence Class 27 Protein a protein is a complex molecule composed of long single-strand chains of amino acid molecules there are 20 amino acids that make up proteins

Detaljer

SAMPOL115 Emneevaluering høsten 2014

SAMPOL115 Emneevaluering høsten 2014 SAMPOL115 Emneevaluering høsten 2014 Om emnet SAMPOL 270 ble avholdt for førsten gang høsten 2013. Det erstatter til dels SAMPOL217 som sist ble avholdt høsten 2012. Denne høsten 2014 var Michael Alvarez

Detaljer

Emneevaluering GEOV272 V17

Emneevaluering GEOV272 V17 Emneevaluering GEOV272 V17 Studentenes evaluering av kurset Svarprosent: 36 % (5 av 14 studenter) Hvilket semester er du på? Hva er ditt kjønn? Er du...? Er du...? - Annet PhD Candidate Samsvaret mellom

Detaljer

Årsplan ENGELSK 5.trinn. Setningsmønster It starts at It finishes at I want to be a when I grow up

Årsplan ENGELSK 5.trinn. Setningsmønster It starts at It finishes at I want to be a when I grow up Årsplan ENGELSK 5.trinn Kompetansemål (Henta frå Kunnskapsløftet) Språklæring identifisere og bruke ulike situasjoner og læringsstrategier for å utvide egne ferdigheter i engelsk beskrive eget arbeid med

Detaljer

PETROLEUMSPRISRÅDET. NORM PRICE FOR ALVHEIM AND NORNE CRUDE OIL PRODUCED ON THE NORWEGIAN CONTINENTAL SHELF 1st QUARTER 2016

PETROLEUMSPRISRÅDET. NORM PRICE FOR ALVHEIM AND NORNE CRUDE OIL PRODUCED ON THE NORWEGIAN CONTINENTAL SHELF 1st QUARTER 2016 1 PETROLEUMSPRISRÅDET Deres ref Vår ref Dato OED 16/716 22.06.2016 To the Licensees (Unofficial translation) NORM PRICE FOR ALVHEIM AND NORNE CRUDE OIL PRODUCED ON THE NORWEGIAN CONTINENTAL SHELF 1st QUARTER

Detaljer

Hvor mye teoretisk kunnskap har du tilegnet deg på dette emnet? (1 = ingen, 5 = mye)

Hvor mye teoretisk kunnskap har du tilegnet deg på dette emnet? (1 = ingen, 5 = mye) INF234 Er du? Er du? - Annet Hvor mye teoretisk kunnskap har du tilegnet deg på dette emnet? (1 = ingen, 5 = mye) Hvor mye praktisk kunnskap har du tilegnet deg på dette emnet? (1 = ingen, 5 = mye) Hvor

Detaljer

// Translation // KLART SVAR «Free-Range Employees»

// Translation // KLART SVAR «Free-Range Employees» // Translation // KLART SVAR «Free-Range Employees» Klart Svar is a nationwide multiple telecom store, known as a supplier of mobile phones and wireless office solutions. The challenge was to make use

Detaljer

Unit Relational Algebra 1 1. Relational Algebra 1. Unit 3.3

Unit Relational Algebra 1 1. Relational Algebra 1. Unit 3.3 Relational Algebra 1 Unit 3.3 Unit 3.3 - Relational Algebra 1 1 Relational Algebra Relational Algebra is : the formal description of how a relational database operates the mathematics which underpin SQL

Detaljer

Of all the places in the world, I love to stay at Grandma Genia and

Of all the places in the world, I love to stay at Grandma Genia and Of all the places in the world, I love to stay at Grandma Genia and Grandpa Yuda s house. I spend all my vacations there away from my nagging sister, away from my parents without ever having to wake up

Detaljer

Newtons fargeskive. Regnbuens farger blir til hvitt. Sett skiva i rask rotasjon ved hjelp av sveiva.

Newtons fargeskive. Regnbuens farger blir til hvitt. Sett skiva i rask rotasjon ved hjelp av sveiva. Newtons fargeskive Regnbuens farger blir til hvitt. Sett skiva i rask rotasjon ved hjelp av sveiva. Se hva som skjer med fargene. Hvitt lys består av en blanding av alle farger. Når fargeskiva roterer

Detaljer

Trigonometric Substitution

Trigonometric Substitution Trigonometric Substitution Alvin Lin Calculus II: August 06 - December 06 Trigonometric Substitution sin 4 (x) cos (x) dx When you have a product of sin and cos of different powers, you have three different

Detaljer

Språkleker og bokstavinnlæring

Språkleker og bokstavinnlæring FORSLAG OG IDEER TIL Språkleker og bokstavinnlæring POCOS hjelper barnet med språkutvikling og begrepsforståelse og er også nyttig til trening av øye-hånd-koordinasjon, fokus og konsentrasjon. POCOS fremmer

Detaljer

How we connect online and offline

How we connect online and offline How we connect online and offline Hvordan bruke tekstene til å besvare oppgavene? Introduksjonen til temaet: This year s topic is how we connect with people, both online in the virtual world of the internet,

Detaljer

Eksamen ENG1002 Engelsk fellesfag ENG1003 Engelsk fellesfag. Nynorsk/Bokmål

Eksamen ENG1002 Engelsk fellesfag ENG1003 Engelsk fellesfag. Nynorsk/Bokmål Eksamen 23.05.2018 ENG1002 Engelsk fellesfag ENG1003 Engelsk fellesfag Nynorsk/Bokmål Nynorsk Eksamensinformasjon Eksamenstid Hjelpemiddel Eksamen varer i 5 timar. Alle hjelpemiddel er tillatne, bortsett

Detaljer

TUSEN TAKK! BUTIKKEN MIN! ...alt jeg ber om er.. Maren Finn dette og mer i. ... finn meg på nett! Grafiske lisenser.

TUSEN TAKK! BUTIKKEN MIN! ...alt jeg ber om er.. Maren Finn dette og mer i. ... finn meg på nett! Grafiske lisenser. TUSEN TAKK! Det at du velger å bruke mitt materiell for å spare tid og ha det kjekt sammen med elevene betyr mye for meg! Min lidenskap er å hjelpe flotte lærere i en travel hverdag, og å motivere elevene

Detaljer

Hvor mye praktisk kunnskap har du tilegnet deg på dette emnet? (1 = ingen, 5 = mye)

Hvor mye praktisk kunnskap har du tilegnet deg på dette emnet? (1 = ingen, 5 = mye) INF247 Er du? Er du? - Annet Ph.D. Student Hvor mye teoretisk kunnskap har du tilegnet deg på dette emnet? (1 = ingen, 5 = mye) Hvor mye praktisk kunnskap har du tilegnet deg på dette emnet? (1 = ingen,

Detaljer

Norwegian FAOS, version LK1.0

Norwegian FAOS, version LK1.0 Norwegian FAOS, version LK1.0 The KOOS form was translated from Swedish into Norwegian by the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR). The Norwegian National Knee Ligament Registry (NKLR) translated the

Detaljer

Den som gjør godt, er av Gud (Multilingual Edition)

Den som gjør godt, er av Gud (Multilingual Edition) Den som gjør godt, er av Gud (Multilingual Edition) Arne Jordly Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Den som gjør godt, er av Gud (Multilingual Edition) Arne Jordly Den som gjør godt,

Detaljer

PATIENCE TÅLMODIGHET. Is the ability to wait for something. Det trenger vi når vi må vente på noe

PATIENCE TÅLMODIGHET. Is the ability to wait for something. Det trenger vi når vi må vente på noe CARING OMSORG Is when we show that we care about others by our actions or our words Det er når vi viser at vi bryr oss om andre med det vi sier eller gjør PATIENCE TÅLMODIGHET Is the ability to wait for

Detaljer

Bostøttesamling

Bostøttesamling Bostøttesamling 2016 Teresebjerke@husbankenno 04112016 2 09112016 https://wwwyoutubecom/watch?v=khjy5lwf3tg&feature=youtube 3 09112016 Hva skjer fremover? 4 09112016 «Gode selvbetjeningsløsninger» Kilde:

Detaljer

Information search for the research protocol in IIC/IID

Information search for the research protocol in IIC/IID Information search for the research protocol in IIC/IID 1 Medical Library, 2013 Library services for students working with the research protocol and thesis (hovedoppgaven) Open library courses: http://www.ntnu.no/ub/fagside/medisin/medbiblkurs

Detaljer

Hvor langt avbrudd kan man ha fra (DOT-)behandling?

Hvor langt avbrudd kan man ha fra (DOT-)behandling? Hvor langt avbrudd kan man ha fra (DOT-)behandling? Odd Mørkve Senter for internasjonal Helse Universitetet i Bergen Landskonferanse om tuberkulose, Oslo 25.03.2011 Eller: hva gjør man ved avbrudd av tuberkulosebehandling?

Detaljer

Come to praise. We have come to praise your name and give thanks for all things you ve done We lift our voices up to you You are worthy of our song

Come to praise. We have come to praise your name and give thanks for all things you ve done We lift our voices up to you You are worthy of our song Come to praise We have come to praise your name and give thanks for all things you ve done We lift our voices up to you You are worthy of our song We ve come to sing and give you praise We worship you

Detaljer

buildingsmart Norge seminar Gardermoen 2. september 2010 IFD sett i sammenheng med BIM og varedata

buildingsmart Norge seminar Gardermoen 2. september 2010 IFD sett i sammenheng med BIM og varedata buildingsmart Norge seminar Gardermoen 2. september 2010 IFD sett i sammenheng med BIM og varedata IFD International Framework for Dictionaries Hvordan bygges en BIM? Hva kan hentes ut av BIM? Hvordan

Detaljer

Eksamensoppgave i SANT2100 Etnografisk metode

Eksamensoppgave i SANT2100 Etnografisk metode Sosialantropologisk institutt Eksamensoppgave i SANT2100 Etnografisk metode Faglig kontakt under eksamen: Trond Berge Tlf.: 73598214 Eksamensdato: Mandag 26. mai 2014 Eksamenstid: 4 timer Studiepoeng:

Detaljer

UNIVERSITETET I OSLO ØKONOMISK INSTITUTT

UNIVERSITETET I OSLO ØKONOMISK INSTITUTT UNIVERSITETET I OSLO ØKONOMISK INSTITUTT Eksamen i: ECON20 Forbruker, bedrift og marked, høsten 2004 Exam: ECON20 - Consumer behavior, firm behavior and markets, autumn 2004 Eksamensdag: Onsdag 24. november

Detaljer

0:7 0:2 0:1 0:3 0:5 0:2 0:1 0:4 0:5 P = 0:56 0:28 0:16 0:38 0:39 0:23

0:7 0:2 0:1 0:3 0:5 0:2 0:1 0:4 0:5 P = 0:56 0:28 0:16 0:38 0:39 0:23 UTKAST ENGLISH VERSION EKSAMEN I: MOT100A STOKASTISKE PROSESSER VARIGHET: 4 TIMER DATO: 16. februar 2006 TILLATTE HJELPEMIDLER: Kalkulator; Tabeller og formler i statistikk (Tapir forlag): Rottman: Matematisk

Detaljer

Økologisk og kulturell dannelse i økonomiutdanningen

Økologisk og kulturell dannelse i økonomiutdanningen Økologisk og kulturell dannelse i økonomiutdanningen Dannelse på norsk fra ord til handling Professor Ove Jakobsen HHB/UiN Frihet med ansvar Om høyere utdanning og forskning i Norge NOU 2000:14 Det er

Detaljer

Guidance. CBEST, CSET, Middle Level Credential

Guidance. CBEST, CSET, Middle Level Credential Guidance CBEST, CSET, Middle Level Credential Liberal Studies for Teachers, 2009 CBEST California Basic Educational Skills Test Measures basic educational skills needed for teachers Reading Writing Math

Detaljer

Administrasjon av postnummersystemet i Norge Post code administration in Norway. Frode Wold, Norway Post Nordic Address Forum, Iceland 5-6.

Administrasjon av postnummersystemet i Norge Post code administration in Norway. Frode Wold, Norway Post Nordic Address Forum, Iceland 5-6. Administrasjon av postnummersystemet i Norge Frode Wold, Norway Post Nordic Address Forum, Iceland 5-6. may 2015 Postnumrene i Norge ble opprettet 18.3.1968 The postal codes in Norway was established in

Detaljer

NORM PRICE FOR CRUDE OIL PRODUCED ON THE NORWEGIAN CONTINENTAL SHELF 1 st QUARTER 2015

NORM PRICE FOR CRUDE OIL PRODUCED ON THE NORWEGIAN CONTINENTAL SHELF 1 st QUARTER 2015 1 PETROLEUM PRICE BO ARD Our reference Date OED 15/712 15/06/2015 To the Licensees on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (Unofficial translation) NORM PRICE FOR CRUDE OIL PRODUCED ON THE NORWEGIAN CONTINENTAL

Detaljer

Hvor mye teoretisk kunnskap har du tilegnet deg på dette emnet? (1 = ingen, 5 = mye)

Hvor mye teoretisk kunnskap har du tilegnet deg på dette emnet? (1 = ingen, 5 = mye) INF283, HØST 16 Er du? Er du? - Annet Hvor mye teoretisk kunnskap har du tilegnet deg på dette emnet? (1 = ingen, 5 = mye) Hvor mye praktisk kunnskap har du tilegnet deg på dette emnet? (1 = ingen, 5 =

Detaljer

Familieeide selskaper - Kjennetegn - Styrker og utfordringer - Vekst og nyskapning i harmoni med tradisjoner

Familieeide selskaper - Kjennetegn - Styrker og utfordringer - Vekst og nyskapning i harmoni med tradisjoner Familieeide selskaper - Kjennetegn - Styrker og utfordringer - Vekst og nyskapning i harmoni med tradisjoner Resultater fra omfattende internasjonal undersøkelse og betraktninger om hvordan observasjonene

Detaljer

Speed Racer Theme. Theme Music: Cartoon: Charles Schultz / Jef Mallett Peanuts / Frazz. September 9, 2011 Physics 131 Prof. E. F.

Speed Racer Theme. Theme Music: Cartoon: Charles Schultz / Jef Mallett Peanuts / Frazz. September 9, 2011 Physics 131 Prof. E. F. September 9, 2011 Physics 131 Prof. E. F. Redish Theme Music: Speed Racer Theme Cartoon: Charles Schultz / Jef Mallett Peanuts / Frazz 1 Reading questions Are the lines on the spatial graphs representing

Detaljer

TEMA LÆRESTOFF/MÅL ARBEIDSMÅTAR/OPPGÅVER EVALUERING

TEMA LÆRESTOFF/MÅL ARBEIDSMÅTAR/OPPGÅVER EVALUERING Lindås ungdomsskule 5955 LINDÅS Tlf. 56375054 Faks 56375055 FOR: 2016 2017 KLASSE: 9 A og B FAG: Engelsk FAGLÆRAR: Vibeke Kessner og Anne Julie Hetland ÅRSPLAN Mål: http://www.udir.no/lareplaner/grep/modul/?gmid=10&gmi=58547

Detaljer

C13 Kokstad. Svar på spørsmål til kvalifikasjonsfasen. Answers to question in the pre-qualification phase For English: See page 4 and forward

C13 Kokstad. Svar på spørsmål til kvalifikasjonsfasen. Answers to question in the pre-qualification phase For English: See page 4 and forward C13 Kokstad Svar på spørsmål til kvalifikasjonsfasen Answers to question in the pre-qualification phase For English: See page 4 and forward Norsk Innhold 1. Innledning... 2 2. Spørsmål mottatt per 28.11.12...

Detaljer

Utstyr for avstandsmåling. Dommersamling 14. mars 2015 Stein Jodal

Utstyr for avstandsmåling. Dommersamling 14. mars 2015 Stein Jodal Utstyr for avstandsmåling Dommersamling 14. mars 2015 Stein Jodal Dommersamlingen 2012 Regulert i R 14-3 Kunstige hjelpemidler, uvanlig utstyr og uvanlig bruk av utstyr Anmerkning: Komiteen kan lage en

Detaljer

"Somebody That I Used To Know" Gotye feat. Kimbra (2011)

Somebody That I Used To Know Gotye feat. Kimbra (2011) Originalversion: "Somebody That I Used To Know" 129 bpm Intro Vers 1 (Riff:) Now and then I think of when we were together Like when you said you felt so happy you could die Told myself that you were right

Detaljer

Engelsk gruppe 2 høsten 2015

Engelsk gruppe 2 høsten 2015 Engelsk gruppe 2 høsten 2015 I løpet av høsten har vi jobbet med disse tingene på engelsk: Tall - numbers Norsk - Norwegian Engelsk - English Mitt språk -My language 1 en one 2 to two 3 tre three 4 fire

Detaljer

Til aksjonærene i / for the shareholders in RESERVOIR EXPLORATION TECHNOLOGY ASA SUMMONS FOR AN INNKALLING TIL ORDINARY GENERAL MEETING

Til aksjonærene i / for the shareholders in RESERVOIR EXPLORATION TECHNOLOGY ASA SUMMONS FOR AN INNKALLING TIL ORDINARY GENERAL MEETING Til aksjonærene i / for the shareholders in RESERVOIR EXPLORATION TECHNOLOGY ASA Office translation INNKALLING TIL ORDINÆR GENERALFORSAMLING 2006 Det innkalles herved til ordinær generalforsamling i Reservoir

Detaljer

Eksamen SOS1001, vår 2017

Eksamen SOS1001, vår 2017 Eksamen SOS1001, vår 2017 BOKMÅL Oppgave 1, 2 og 3 teller likt (33,3 %) i karaktervurderingen. Hver enkelt oppgave må bestås for å bestå eksamen i sin helhet. Merk at alle oppgavene kan besvares kort (ca.

Detaljer

Fagevalueringsrapport FYS Diffraksjonsmetoder og elektronmikroskopi

Fagevalueringsrapport FYS Diffraksjonsmetoder og elektronmikroskopi Fagevalueringsrapport FYS4340 - Diffraksjonsmetoder og elektronmikroskopi Fall 08 Lecturer:Arne Olsen and Anette Eleonora Gunnæs Fysisk Fagutvalg 4. november 2008 Fagutvalgets kommentar: Fysisk fagutvalg

Detaljer

UNIVERSITETET I OSLO ØKONOMISK INSTITUTT

UNIVERSITETET I OSLO ØKONOMISK INSTITUTT UNIVERSITETET I OSLO ØKONOMISK INSTITUTT Eksamen i: ECON360/460 Samfunnsøkonomisk lønnsomhet og økonomisk politikk Exam: ECON360/460 - Resource allocation and economic policy Eksamensdag: Fredag 2. november

Detaljer

SJEKKESKOLEN: EN STEG-FOR-STEG GUIDE TIL TILTREKNING AV FANTASTISKE JENTER (NORWEGIAN EDITION) BY ANDREAS GODE VIBBER

SJEKKESKOLEN: EN STEG-FOR-STEG GUIDE TIL TILTREKNING AV FANTASTISKE JENTER (NORWEGIAN EDITION) BY ANDREAS GODE VIBBER SJEKKESKOLEN: EN STEG-FOR-STEG GUIDE TIL TILTREKNING AV FANTASTISKE JENTER (NORWEGIAN EDITION) BY ANDREAS GODE VIBBER DOWNLOAD EBOOK : SJEKKESKOLEN: EN STEG-FOR-STEG GUIDE TIL EDITION) BY ANDREAS GODE

Detaljer

IN 211 Programmeringsspråk. Dokumentasjon. Hvorfor skrive dokumentasjon? For hvem? «Lesbar programmering» Ark 1 av 11

IN 211 Programmeringsspråk. Dokumentasjon. Hvorfor skrive dokumentasjon? For hvem? «Lesbar programmering» Ark 1 av 11 Dokumentasjon Hvorfor skrive dokumentasjon? For hvem? «Lesbar programmering» Ark 1 av 11 Forelesning 8.11.1999 Dokumentasjon Med hvert skikkelig program bør det komme følgende dokumentasjon: innføring

Detaljer

Norwegian KOOS, version LK1.0

Norwegian KOOS, version LK1.0 Nasjonalt Register for Leddproteser The Norwegian Arthroplasty Register,c. Bergen 15 May 2007 Norwegian KOOS, version LK1.0 The KOOS form was translated into Norwegian in the following way. Translation

Detaljer

Eksamensoppgave i SANT1002 Økonomi, politikk og økologi

Eksamensoppgave i SANT1002 Økonomi, politikk og økologi Sosialantropologisk institutt Eksamensoppgave i SANT1002 Økonomi, politikk og økologi Faglig kontakt under eksamen: Martin Thomassen Tlf.: 995 01 786 Eksamensdato: 1. juni 2015 Eksamenstid: 5 timer Studiepoeng:

Detaljer

PARABOLSPEIL. Still deg bak krysset

PARABOLSPEIL. Still deg bak krysset PARABOLSPEIL Stå foran krysset på gulvet og se inn i parabolen. Hvordan ser du ut? Still deg bak krysset på gulvet. Hva skjer? Hva skjer når du stiller deg på krysset? Still deg bak krysset Det krumme

Detaljer

Mathematics 114Q Integration Practice Problems SOLUTIONS. = 1 8 (x2 +5x) 8 + C. [u = x 2 +5x] = 1 11 (3 x)11 + C. [u =3 x] = 2 (7x + 9)3/2

Mathematics 114Q Integration Practice Problems SOLUTIONS. = 1 8 (x2 +5x) 8 + C. [u = x 2 +5x] = 1 11 (3 x)11 + C. [u =3 x] = 2 (7x + 9)3/2 Mathematics 4Q Name: SOLUTIONS. (x + 5)(x +5x) 7 8 (x +5x) 8 + C [u x +5x]. (3 x) (3 x) + C [u 3 x] 3. 7x +9 (7x + 9)3/ [u 7x + 9] 4. x 3 ( + x 4 ) /3 3 8 ( + x4 ) /3 + C [u + x 4 ] 5. e 5x+ 5 e5x+ + C

Detaljer

Dialogkveld 03. mars 2016. Mobbing i barnehagen

Dialogkveld 03. mars 2016. Mobbing i barnehagen Dialogkveld 03. mars 2016 Mobbing i barnehagen Discussion evening March 3rd 2016 Bullying at kindergarten Mobbing i barnehagen Kan vi si at det eksisterer mobbing i barnehagen? Er barnehagebarn i stand

Detaljer

P(ersonal) C(omputer) Gunnar Misund. Høgskolen i Østfold. Avdeling for Informasjonsteknologi

P(ersonal) C(omputer) Gunnar Misund. Høgskolen i Østfold. Avdeling for Informasjonsteknologi ? Høgskolen i Østfold Avdeling for Informasjonsteknologi Mobile Applications Group (MAG), HiØ Har holdt på siden 2004 4-5 fagansatte (inkludert professor og stipendiat) Tverrfaglig: Brukergrensesnitt Sosiale

Detaljer

Fag: Engelsk Gruppe 10. trinn Lærer: Bjørnar Sollie Timenes, Kristin Tofteland, Ingunn Kile Rønning

Fag: Engelsk Gruppe 10. trinn Lærer: Bjørnar Sollie Timenes, Kristin Tofteland, Ingunn Kile Rønning Årsplan 2015-16 Kunnskapsløftet Fag: Engelsk Gruppe 10. trinn Lærer: Bjørnar Sollie Timenes, Kristin Tofteland, Ingunn Kile Rønning Årsplan i fag etter Kunnskapsløftet 10. trinn 2015-16 De grunnleggende

Detaljer

Alvdal. www.alvdal.kommune.no

Alvdal. www.alvdal.kommune.no På kan du gå i den flotte naturen på ski eller til fots. Du kan jakte og fiske. Av butikker har vi kafèer, bensinstasjoner og et lite sentrum med sportsbutikk, dagnligvarebutikker, lekebutikk, blomsterbutikk

Detaljer

GEO326 Geografiske perspektiv på mat

GEO326 Geografiske perspektiv på mat U N I V E R S I T E T E T I B E R G E N Institutt for geografi Emnerapport høsten 2015: GEO326 Geografiske perspektiv på mat Innhold: 1. Informasjon om emnet 2. Statistikk 3. Egenevaluering 4. Studentevaluering

Detaljer

Databases 1. Extended Relational Algebra

Databases 1. Extended Relational Algebra Databases 1 Extended Relational Algebra Relational Algebra What is an Algebra? Mathematical system consisting of: Operands --- variables or values from which new values can be constructed. Operators ---

Detaljer

Stuntskriving. Stuntskrive-arket er delt opp i 9 deler som skal inneholde følgende:

Stuntskriving. Stuntskrive-arket er delt opp i 9 deler som skal inneholde følgende: Stuntskriving Denne øvelsen er for at elevene skal få bedre oversikt og flyt i historiene de skriver. Den kan passe bra innenfor stil-skriving i alle språkfag. Stuntskriving er en god måte å komme i gang

Detaljer

Physical origin of the Gouy phase shift by Simin Feng, Herbert G. Winful Opt. Lett. 26, (2001)

Physical origin of the Gouy phase shift by Simin Feng, Herbert G. Winful Opt. Lett. 26, (2001) by Simin Feng, Herbert G. Winful Opt. Lett. 26, 485-487 (2001) http://smos.sogang.ac.r April 18, 2014 Introduction What is the Gouy phase shift? For Gaussian beam or TEM 00 mode, ( w 0 r 2 E(r, z) = E

Detaljer

Elektronisk innlevering/electronic solution for submission:

Elektronisk innlevering/electronic solution for submission: VIKINGTIDSMUSEET Plan- og designkonkurranse/design competition Elektronisk innlevering/electronic solution for submission: Det benyttes en egen elektronisk løsning for innlevering (Byggeweb Anbud). Dette

Detaljer

Støtteark Tidsformer (verb) Presens (nåtid): Når vi skriver i presens så bruker vi verbet i sin grunnform, men hvis det er

Støtteark Tidsformer (verb) Presens (nåtid): Når vi skriver i presens så bruker vi verbet i sin grunnform, men hvis det er Støtteark Tidsformer (verb) Presens (nåtid): Når vi skriver i presens så bruker vi verbet i sin grunnform, men hvis det er he, she eller it som gjør noe, så føyer vi til en s (-es). Det har altså ikke

Detaljer

Exercise 1: Phase Splitter DC Operation

Exercise 1: Phase Splitter DC Operation Exercise 1: DC Operation When you have completed this exercise, you will be able to measure dc operating voltages and currents by using a typical transistor phase splitter circuit. You will verify your

Detaljer

Perpetuum (im)mobile

Perpetuum (im)mobile Perpetuum (im)mobile Sett hjulet i bevegelse og se hva som skjer! Hva tror du er hensikten med armene som slår ut når hjulet snurrer mot høyre? Hva tror du ordet Perpetuum mobile betyr? Modell 170, Rev.

Detaljer

The internet of Health

The internet of Health The internet of Health! Biler, helse og fremtiden!! Velkon 2014, 22. October 2014 Nard Schreurs, IKT-Norge Få ut begrepet «pasient» av tanker om helse. Aldring 1980-2010 Menn 72 år til 79 år Kvinner 79

Detaljer

I can introduce myself in English. I can explain why it is important to learn English. I can find information in texts. I can recognize a noun.

I can introduce myself in English. I can explain why it is important to learn English. I can find information in texts. I can recognize a noun. Pets and vets The key to communication The key to communication 34-35 36 Kommentere eget arbeid med å lære engelsk emner Uttrykke seg med flyt og sammenheng tilpasset formål og situasjon Uttrykke og begrunne

Detaljer

Dylan Wiliams forskning i et norsk perspektiv

Dylan Wiliams forskning i et norsk perspektiv Dylan Wiliams forskning i et norsk perspektiv Ungdomsskolekonferansen Gyldendal kompetanse Jarl Inge Wærness 15.09.2014 There is only one 21st century skill We need to produce people who know how to act

Detaljer

Geir Lieblein, IPV. På spor av fremragende utdanning NMBU, 7. oktober 2015 GL

Geir Lieblein, IPV. På spor av fremragende utdanning NMBU, 7. oktober 2015 GL Å ta ansvar refleksjon som grunnlag for læring Geir Lieblein, IPV På spor av fremragende utdanning NMBU, 7. oktober 2015 GL 11.08.2014 Refleksjon Individuelt og sammen Agroecology MSc vårt konseptuelle

Detaljer

JAZZ BAND SERIES. Preview Only. Legal Use Requires Purchase. Feels So Good. CHUCK MANGIONE Arranged by VICTOR LÓPEZ INSTRUMENTATION

JAZZ BAND SERIES. Preview Only. Legal Use Requires Purchase. Feels So Good. CHUCK MANGIONE Arranged by VICTOR LÓPEZ INSTRUMENTATION JAZZ BAND SERIES a division of Alfred JAZZ Feels So Good Conductor 1st Eb Alto Saxophone 2nd Eb Alto Saxophone 1st Bb Tenor Saxophone 2nd Bb Tenor Saxophone Eb Baritone Saxophone 1st Bb Trumpet 2nd Bb

Detaljer

Trust in the Personal Data Economy. Nina Chung Mathiesen Digital Consulting

Trust in the Personal Data Economy. Nina Chung Mathiesen Digital Consulting Trust in the Personal Data Economy Nina Chung Mathiesen Digital Consulting Why does trust matter? 97% of Europeans would be happy for their personal data to be used to inform, make recommendations or add

Detaljer

SVMET Kvalitativ metode

SVMET Kvalitativ metode SVMET1010 1 Kvalitativ metode Oppgaver Oppgavetype Vurdering 1 Oppgave 1 - SVMET1010 Skriveoppgave Manuell poengsum 2 Oppgave 2 - SVMET1010 Skriveoppgave Manuell poengsum SVMET1010 1 Kvalitativ metode

Detaljer

matematikk s F4814A8B1B37D77C639B3 Matematikk S1 1 / 6

matematikk s F4814A8B1B37D77C639B3 Matematikk S1 1 / 6 Matematikk S1 1 / 6 2 / 6 3 / 6 Matematikk S1 1P - Praktisk matematikk; 2P - Praktisk matematikk; 2P-Y - Praktisk matematikk; 1T - Teoretisk matematikk; R1 - Matematikk for realfag; R2 - Matematikk for

Detaljer

Presenting a short overview of research and teaching

Presenting a short overview of research and teaching Presenting a short overview of research and teaching Portuguese in Norway at university level Diana Santos d.s.m.santos@ilos.uio.no Romanskfagråd møte, Oslo, 31 October 2014 Research Research under Linguateca

Detaljer

UNIVERSITETET I OSLO ØKONOMISK INSTITUTT

UNIVERSITETET I OSLO ØKONOMISK INSTITUTT 1 UNIVERSITETET I OSLO ØKONOMISK INSTITUTT BOKMÅL Utsatt eksamen i: ECON2915 Vekst og næringsstruktur Eksamensdag: 07.12.2012 Tid for eksamen: kl. 09:00-12:00 Oppgavesettet er på 5 sider Tillatte hjelpemidler:

Detaljer

Bibliotekundervisningens fremtid nytt fokus på metodikk og digitalisering

Bibliotekundervisningens fremtid nytt fokus på metodikk og digitalisering Bibliotekundervisningens fremtid nytt fokus på metodikk og digitalisering PhD on Track som nettressurs i bibliotekkurs for ph.d.-kandidater VIRAK-konferansen for universitets- og høgskolebibliotek, Stavanger

Detaljer

Eksamensoppgave i SANT3508 Globalization Theory and Culture

Eksamensoppgave i SANT3508 Globalization Theory and Culture Sosialantropologisk institutt Eksamensoppgave i SANT3508 Globalization Theory and Culture Faglig kontakt under eksamen: Martin Thomassen Tlf.: 995 01 786 Eksamensdato: 4. juni 2015 Eksamenstid: 4 timer

Detaljer

BYGG BROER IKKE MURER

BYGG BROER IKKE MURER BYGG BROER IKKE MURER HBV og Dzemal Bijedic University of Mostar s internasjonale sommerskole i Mostar, Bosnia & Hercegovina Ved Lars Petter Soltvedt, PhD Høgskolen i Buskerud og Vestfold Synspunkter

Detaljer

Stordatapolitikk eller politikk for store data? Skatteetatens erfaringer og perspektiver på analyse av store datamengder

Stordatapolitikk eller politikk for store data? Skatteetatens erfaringer og perspektiver på analyse av store datamengder Stordatapolitikk eller politikk for store data? Skatteetatens erfaringer og perspektiver på analyse av store datamengder Hva er skatteetatens status og behov rundt stordata? Stordata er ikke bare analyse!

Detaljer

1 User guide for the uioletter package

1 User guide for the uioletter package 1 User guide for the uioletter package The uioletter is used almost like the standard LATEX document classes. The main differences are: The letter is placed in a \begin{letter}... \end{letter} environment;

Detaljer

LIBER BVEL MAGI SVB FIGVRÂ I

LIBER BVEL MAGI SVB FIGVRÂ I LIBER BVEL MAGI SVB FIGVRÂ I 00. One is the Magus: twain His forces: four His weapons. These are the Seven Spirits of Unrighteousness; seven vultures of evil. Thus is the art and craft of the Magus but

Detaljer

Forbruk & Finansiering

Forbruk & Finansiering Sida 1 Forbruk & Finansiering Analyser og kommentarer fra Forbrukerøkonom Randi Marjamaa basert på en undersøkelse gjennomført av TEMO/MMI for Nordea RESULTATER FRA NORGE OG NORDEN Nordea 2006-02-28 Sida

Detaljer

UNIVERSITETET I OSLO

UNIVERSITETET I OSLO UNIVERSITETET I OSLO Det matematisk-naturvitenskapelige fakultet Eksamen i: KJB 492 Bioinformatikk Eksamensdag: Fredag 14. desember 2001 Tid for eksamen: Kl.: 9.00 13.00 Oppgavesettet er på 7 sider. Vedlegg:

Detaljer